Research Methodology - Glossary



Keyword
Definition
Vietnamese
Absolute causality
Means the cause is necessary and sufficient to bring about the effect.
Nguyên nhân tất yếu
Abstract level
In theory development, the level of knowledge expressing a concept that exists only as an idea or a quality apart from an object.
Mức độ trừu tượng
Acquiescence bias
A tendency for respondents to agree with all or most questions asked of them in a survey.
Xu hướng người trả lời đồng ý với tất cả hay hầu hết các câu hỏi của họ trong một cuộc khảo sát.
Administrative error
An error caused by the improper administration or execution of the research task.
Lỗi hành chính
Analysis of variance (anova)
Analysis involving the investigation of the effects of one treatment variable on an intervalscaled dependent variable-a hypothesis testing technique to determine whether statistically significant differences in means occur between two or more groups.
Phân tích phương sai
Applied business research
Research conducted to address a specific business decision for a specific firm or organization.
Nghiên cứu kinh doanh ứng dụng: Nghiên cứu được tiến hành để giải quyết một quyết định kinh doanh cụ thể nào đó cho một công ty hay tổ chức cụ thể.
Attitude
An enduring disposition to consistently respond in a given manner to various aspects of the world composed of affective, cognitive, and behavioral components.
Thái độ
Attribute
A single characteristic or fundamental feature of an object, person, situation, or issue.
Thuộc tính
Back translation
Taking a questionnaire that has previously been translated into another language and having a second, independent translator translate it back to the original language.
Dịch ngược
Backward linkage
Implies that later steps influence earlier stages of the research process.
Liên hệ ngược
Balanced rating scale
A fixed-alternative rating scale with an equal number of positive and negative categories; a neutral point or point of indifference is at the center of the scale.
Thang đánh giá cân bằng
Basic experimental design
An experimental design in which only one variable is manipulated.
Một thiết kế thử nghiệm, trong đó chỉ có một biến được thao tác.
Behavioral differential
A rating scale instrument similar to a semantic differential, developed to measure the behavioral intentions of subjects toward future actions.
Sự khác biệt hành vi
Between-groups variance
The sum of differences between the group mean and the grand mean summed over all groups for a given set of observations.
Phương sai giữa các nhóm
Bivariate statistical analysis
Statistical test involving two variables.
Phân tích thống kê hai biến
Box and whisker plots
Graphic representations of central tendencies, percentiles, variabilities, and the shapes of frequency distributions.
Biểu đồ hộp-và-râu
Business ethics
The application of morals to behavior related to the exchange environment.
Đạo đức kinh doanh
Business intelligence
The subset of data and information that actually has some explanatory power enabling effective decisions to be made.
Giải pháp quản trị doanh nghiệp thông minh
Business opportunity
A situation that makes some potential competitive advantage possible.
Cơ hội kinh doanh
Business problem
A situation that makes some significant negative
Consequence more likely.
Vấn đề doanh nghiệp
Business research
The application of the scientific method in
Searching for the truth about business phenomena. These activities include defining business opportunities and problems, generating and evaluating ideas, monitoring performance, and understanding the business process.
Điều tra tình hình doanh nghiệp
Case study
The documented history of a particular person, group, organization, or event.
Nghiên cứu tình huống
Categorical variable
A variable that indicates membership in some group.
Biến thứ bậc
Causal inference
A conclusion that when one thing happens, another specific thing will follow.
Suy luận nhân quả
Causal research
Allows causal inferences to be made; seeks to identify cause-and-effect relationships.
Nghiên cứu quan hệ nhân quả
Census
An investigation of all the individual elements that make up a population.
Nhân khẩu học
Central location interviewing
Telephone interviews conducted from a central location, allowing firms to hire a staff of professional interviewers and to supervise and control the quality of interviewing more effectively.
Các cuộc phỏng vấn qua điện thoại từ một vị trí trung tâm, cho phép các công ty thuê đội ngũ nhân viên phỏng vấn chuyên nghiệp và giám sát, kiểm soát chất lượng phỏng vấn hiệu quả hơn.
Chi-square (x2) test
One of the basic tests for statistical significance that is particularly appropriate for testing hypotheses about frequencies arranged in a frequency or contingency table.
Kiểm định chi-square
Choice
A measurement task that identifies preferences by requiring respondents to choose between two or more alternatives.
Lựa chọn
Click-through rate
Proportion of people who are exposed to an internet ad who actually click on its hyperlink to enter the web site; click-through rates are generally very low.
Tỷ lệ click chuột
Cluster analysis
A multivariate approach for grouping observations based on similarity among measured variables.
Phân tích cụm
Cluster sampling
An economically efficient sampling technique in
which the primary sampling unit is not the individual element in the population but a large cluster of elements; clusters are
Selected randomly.
Chọn mẫu cụm
Code book
A book that identifies each variable in a study and gives the variable’s description, code name, and position in the data matrix.
Mã sách
Codes
Rules for interpreting, classifying, and recording data in the coding process; also, the actual numerical or other character symbols assigned to raw data.
Mật mã
Coding
The process of assigning a numerical score or other character symbol to previously edited data.
Mã hóa
Construct validity
Construct validity exists when a measure reliably and truthfully represents a unique concept; consists of several components including face validity, content validity, criterion validity, convergent validity, and discriminant validity.
Tính hiệu lực của nhân tố
Consumer panel
A longitudinal survey of the same sample of individuals or households to record their attitudes, behavior, or purchasing habits over time.
Nhóm người tiêu dùng
Content analysis
The systematic observation and quantitative description of the content of communication.
Phân tích nội dung
Content providers
Parties that furnish information on the world wide web.
Hệ thống cung cấp thông tin
Content validity
The degree to which a measure covers the breadth of the domain of interest.
Độ chính xác về nội dung
Contingency table
A data matrix that displays the frequency of
some combination of possible responses to multiple variables;
Cross-tabulation results.
Bảng phân phối xác suất
Continuous variable
A variable that can take on a range of values that correspond to some quantitative amount.
Biến số liên tục
Control group
A group of subjects to whom no experimental treatment is administered.
Kiểm soát nhóm
Convenience sampling
The sampling procedure of obtaining those people or units that is most conveniently available.
Mẫu thuận tiện
Cookies
Small computer files that a content provider can save onto the computer of someone who visits its web site.
Là một dạng tập tin được tạo ra và lưu lại trên trình duyệt khi người dùng truy cập một website.
Correlation coefficient
A standardized statistical measure of the covariation, or association, between two at-least interval variables.
Hệ số tương quan
Correlation matrix
The standard form for reporting correlation
Coefficients for more than two variables.
Ma trận tương quan
Correspondence rules
These indicate the way that a certain value on a scale corresponds to some true value of a concept.
Nguyên tắc thư tín
Covariance
Extent to which two variables are associated systematically with each other.
Hiệp phương sai
Cover letter
Letter that accompanies a questionnaire to induce the
Reader to complete and return the questionnaire.
Thư đi kèm với một bảng câu hỏi để người đọc hoàn thành và trả lại bảng câu hỏi.
Criterion validity
The ability of a measure to correlate with other
Standard measures of similar constructs or established criteria.
Đánh giá dựa vào các tiêu chuẩn
Critical values
The values that lie exactly on the boundary of the
region of rejection.
Giá trị tới hạn
Cross-checks
The comparison of data from one source with data from another source to determine the similarity of independent Projects.
Kiểm tra chéo
Cross-functional teams
Employee teams composed of individuals from various functional areas such as engineering, production, finance, and marketing who share a common purpose.
Nhóm liên chức năng
Cross-sectional study
A study in which various segments of a population are sampled and data are collected at a single moment in time.
Nghiên cứu tiêu biểu tại một thời điểm
Cross-tabulation
The appropriate technique for addressing research questions involving relationships among multiple lessthan interval variables; results in a combined frequency table displaying one variable in rows and another in columns.
Phương pháp phân tích bảng chéo
Cross-validate
To verify that the empirical findings from one culture also exist and behave similarly in another culture.
Kiểm chứng chéo
Custom research
Research projects that are tailored specifically to a client’s unique needs.
Dự án nghiên cứu được thiết kế đặc biệt cho nhu cầu riêng biệt của khách hàng.
Customer discovery
Involves mining data to look for patterns identifying who is likely to be a valuable customer.
Liên quan đến việc khai thác dữ liệu để tìm kiếm những khách hàng có giá trị.
Customer relationship management (crm)
Part of the dss
That addresses exchanges between the firm and its customers.
Quản trị quan hệ khách hàng
Data
Facts or recorded measures of certain phenomena.
Dữ liệu
Data analysis
The application of reasoning to understand the data that have been gathered.
Phân tích dữ liệu
Data conversion
The process of changing the original form of the data to a format suitable to achieve the research objective; also called data transformation.
Chuyển đổi dữ liệu
Data entry
The activity of transferring data from a research project to computers.
Nhập dữ liệu
Data file
The way a data set is stored electronically in spread sheet like form in which the rows represent sampling units and the columns represent variables.
Tập tin dữ liệu
Data integrity
The notion that the data file actually contains the information that the researcher promised the decision maker he or she would obtain, meaning in part that the data have been edited and properly coded so that they are useful to the decision maker.
Tính trung thực của dữ liệu
Data mining
The use of powerful computers to dig through volumes of data to discover patterns about an organization’s customers and products; applies to many different forms of analysis.
Khai thác dữ liệu
Data transformation
Process of changing the data from their original form to a format suitable for performing a data analysis addressing research objectives.
Chuyển dạng dữ liệu
Data warehouse
The multitiered computer storehouse of current and historical data.
Lưu trữ dữ liệu
Data warehousing
The process allowing important day-to-day operational data to be stored and organized for simplified access.
Kho dữ liệu
Database marketing
The use of customer databases to promote one-to-one relationships with customers and create precisely targeted promotions.
Cơ sở dữ liệu tiếp thị
Database
A collection of raw data arranged logically and organized in a form that can be stored and processed by a computer.
Cơ sở dữ liệu
Data-processing error
A category of administrative error that occurs because of incorrect data entry, incorrect computer programming, or other procedural errors during data analysis.
Lỗi xử lý dữ liệu
Debriefing
Procedure in which research subjects are fully informed and provided with a chance to ask any questions they may have about the experiment.
Phỏng vấn
Decision making
The process of developing and deciding among alternative ways of resolving a problem or choosing from among alternative opportunities.
Ra quyết định
Decision support system (dss)
A computer-based system that helps decision makers confronts problems through direct interaction with databases and analytical software programs.
Hệ thống hỗ trợ quyết định
Deductive reasoning
The logical process of deriving a conclusion about a specific instance based on a known general premise or something known to be true.
Lý luận diễn dịch
Degrees of freedom (df )
The number of observations minus the number of constraints or assumptions needed to calculate a statistical term.
Độ phân phối theo luật Chi-square với bậc tự do
Dependent variable
A process outcome or a variable that is predicted and/or explained by other variables.
Biến phụ thuộc
Depth interview
A one-on-one interview between a professional
researcher and a research respondent conducted about some relevant business or social topic.
Phỏng vấn sâu
Descriptive analysis
The elementary transformation of raw data
in a way that describes the basic characteristics such as central tendency, distribution, and variability.
Phân tích mô tả
Descriptive research
A type of research that describes characteristics
of objects, people, groups, organizations, or environments and
tries to “paint a picture” of a given situation.
Nghiên cứu mô tả
Descriptive statistics
Statistics which summarize and describe the data in a simple and understandable manner.
Thống kê mô tả
Dialog boxes
.
Windows that open on a computer screen to
prompt the user to enter information
Hộp thoại
Discriminant analysis
A statistical technique for predicting the probability that an object will belong in one of two or more mutually exclusive categories (dependent variables), based on
several independent variables.
Phân tích sự khác biệt
Discriminant validity
A type of validity that represents how unique
or distinct a measure is; a scale should not correlate too highly with a measure of a different construct.
Độ giá trị phân biệt
Double-barreled question
A question that may induce bias because it covers two issues at once.
Câu hỏi có nhiều hơn một ý
Dummy tables
Tables placed in research proposals that are exact representations of the actual tables that will show results in the final report with the exception that the results are hypothetical (fictitious).
Bảng trống, bảng giả (mock tables)
Dummy variable
The way a dichotomous (two group) independent
variable is represented in regression analysis by assigning a 0 to one group and a 1 to the other.
Biến giả
Editing
The process of checking the  Completeness, consistency, and legibility of data and making the data ready for coding and transfer to storage.
Hiệu chỉnh/Biên tập
Elaboration analysis
An analysis of the basic cross–tabulation for each level of a variable not previously considered, such as subgroups of the sample.
Phân tích chi tiết
Electronic data interchange (EDI)
A type of exchange that occurs when one company’s computer system is integrated with another company’s system.
Trao đổi dữ liệu điện tử
E-mail surveys
Surveys distributed through electronic mail.
Khảo sát qua thư điện tử
Empirical level
A level of knowledge that is verifiable by experience or observation.
Mức độ khảo sát thực nghiệm
Empirical testing
Examining a research hypothesis against reality using data.
Kiểm tra thực nghiệm
Environmental scanning
A research method that entails all information gathering designed to detect changes in the external operating environment of the firm.
Nghiên cứu bao quát môi trường
Error trapping
The use of software to control the flow of an Internet questionnaire—for example, to prevent respondents from returning to previous questions or failing to answer a question
Bắt lỗi/bẫy lỗi
Ethical dilemma
A situation in which one chooses form alternative
courses of actions, each with different ethical implications.
Cách thức giải quyết về đạo đức
Ethnography
The study of cultures through methods that involve becoming highly active within that culture
Dân tộc học/or Chủng tộc học
Evaluation research
The formal, objective measurement and appraisal of the extent to which a given activity, project, or program has achieved its objectives.
Nghiên cứu đánh giá
Experiment
A carefully controlled study in which the researcher manipulates a proposed cause and observes any corresponding change in the proposed effect.
Thử nghiệm
Experimental condition
One of the possible levels of an experimental variable manipulation.
Điều kiện thử nghiệm
Experimental group
A group of subjects to whom an experimental treatment is administered.
Nhóm thử nghiệm
Experimental treatment
The term referring to the way an experimental variable is manipulated
Xử lý thử nghiệm
Experimental variable
The proposed cause, controlled by the researcher who manipulates it.
Biến thử nghiệm
Exploratory research
A type of research conducted to clarify ambiguous situations or discover ideas that may be potential business opportunities.
Nghiên cứu thăm dò
External data
Data created, recorded, or generated by an entity other than the researcher’s organization.
Dữ liệu bên ngoài
External validity
The accuracy with which experimental results
can be generalized beyond the experimental subjects
Giá trị bên ngoài
Extraneous variables
Variables that naturally exist in the environment and that may have some systematic effect on the dependent variable.
Biến ngoại lai
Extremity bias
A category of response bias that results because some individuals tend to use extremes when responding to questions.
Khuynh hướng biên
Eye-tracking monitor
A mechanical device used to observe eye movements; some eye monitors use infrared light beams to measure unconscious eye movements.
Màn hình theo dõi chuyển động của mắt
Face validity
A scale’s content logically appears to reflect what was intended to be measured
Giá trị bề ngoài
Factor analysis
A prototypical multivariate, interdependence technique that statistically identifies a reduced number of factors from a larger number of measured variables.
Phân tích yếu tố, các phương pháp rút gọn data
Factor loading
Indicates how strongly a measured variable is correlated with a factor.
Factor loading
Factor rotation
A mathematical way of simplifying factor analysis results to better identify which variables “load on” which factors; the most common procedure is varimax.
Xoay các nhân tố
Factorial design
A design that allows for the testing of the effects of two or more treatments (experimental variables) at various levels
Thiết kế thừa số
Fax survey
A survey that uses fax machines as a way for respondents to receive and return questionnaires
Khảo sát qua fax
Field
A collection of characters that represents a single type of data—usually a variable.
Phạm vi
Field editing
Preliminary editing by a field supervisor on the same day as the interview to catch technical omissions, check legibility of handwriting, and clarify responses that are logically or conceptually inconsistent.
Hiệu chỉnh theo phạm vi
Field experiments
Research projects involving experimental manipulations that are implemented in a natural environment
Thử nghiệm ngoài hiện trường
Field interviewing service
A research supplier that specializes in gathering data.
Dịch vụ phỏng vấn ngoài hiện trường
Field notes
The researcher’s descriptions of what actually happens in the field; these notes then become the text from which meaning is extracted.
Ghi chú trên hiện trường
Fieldworker
An individual who is responsible for gathering data in
the field.
Người làm công tác nghiên cứu ngoài hiện trường
Filter question
A question that screens out respondents who are not qualified to answer a second question.
Câu hỏi gạn lọc
Fixed-alternative questions
Questions in which respondents are given specific, limited-alternative responses and asked to choose the one closest to their own viewpoint.
Câu hỏi lựa chọn trong giới hạn
Focus blog
A type of informal, “continuous” focus group established as an Internet blog for the purpose of collecting qualitativev data from participant comments.
Diễn đàn tập trung
Focus group
A small group that discusses some research topic, led by a moderator who guides discussion among the participants.
Nhóm tập trung
Focus group interview
An unstructured, free-flowing interview with a small group of around six to ten people. Focus groups are led by a trained moderator who follows a flexible format encouraging dialogue among respondents.
Phỏng vấn theo nhóm tập trung
Foot-in-the-door compliance technique
A technique for obtaining
a high response rate; compliance with a large or difficult task
is induced by first obtaining the respondent’s compliance with a
smaller request.
Kỹ thuật tuân theo nguyên tắc “kẹt chân trong cửa”/or “chặn chân lên bậc cửa”
Forced answering software
Software that prevents respondents from continuing with an Internet questionnaire if they fail to answer a question
Phần mềm trả lời bắt buộc
Forced-choice rating scale
A fixed-alternative rating scale that requires respondents to choose one of the fixed alternatives
Quy mô đánh giá theo lực chọn bắt buộc
Forecast analyst
Employee who provides technical assistance such as running computer programs and manipulating data to generate a sales forecast
Nhà phân tích dự báo
Forward linkage
A connection that implies that the earlier stages of the research process influence the later stages.
Liên kết về sau
Free-association techniques
A technique that records respondents’s first (top-of-mind) cognitive reactions to some stimulus
Kỹ thuật liên tưởng tự do
Frequency distribution
A set of data organized by summarizing the number of times a particular value of a variable occurs.
Mật độ phân phối tần số
Frequency table
A table displaying a frequency distribution
Bảng tần số
Frequency-determination question
A fixed-alternative question that asks for an answer about general frequency of occurrence
Câu hỏi xác định tần số
F-test
A statistical test used to determine whether some outcome varies systematically with an independent variable(s).
Kiểm định F
F-test (regression)
A statistical test aimed at determining whether
or not a significant amount of variance in a dependent variable
is explained by the independent variable(s).
Kiểm định hồi quy F
Funded business research
A type of basic research usually
performed by academic researchers and is financially supported by some public or private institution, as in federal government grants.
Nghiên cứu kinh doanh có tài trợ
Funnel technique
The technique of asking general questions before specific questions in order to obtain unbiased responses.
Kỹ thuật hình phễu
General linear model (GLM)
A way of explaining and predicting a dependent variable based on fluctuations (variation) from its mean. The fluctuations are due to changes in independent variables.
Mô hình tuyến tính chung
Global information system
An organized collection of computer hardware, software, data, and personnel designed to capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and immediately display information about worldwide business activity.
Hệ thống thông tin toàn cầu
Goodness-of-fit (GOF)
A general term representing how well some computed table or matrix of values matches some population or predetermined table or matrix of the same size.
Sự phù hợp (của mô hình hồi quy)
Grand mean
The mean of a variable over all observations.
Trung bình tổng quát
Graphic aids
Pictures or diagrams used to clarify complex points or emphasize a message.
Hỗ trợ đồ họa
Graphic rating scale
A measure of attitude that allows respondents to rate an object by choosing any point along a graphic continuum
Quy mô đánh giá bằng đồ họa
Grounded theory
An inductive investigation in which the researcher poses questions about information provided by respondents or taken from historical records; the researcher repeatedly questions the responses to derive deeper explanations
Lý thuyết nền tảng
Hawthorne effect
The experimental phenomenon whereby people will perform differently from normal when they know they are experimental subjects.
Hiệu ứng Hawthorne
Hidden observation
Observation in which the subject is unaware that observation is taking place
Quan sát kín
Histogram
A graphical way of showing a frequency distribution in which the height of a bar corresponds to the observed frequency of the category.
Biểu đồ
History effect
An effect that occurs when some change other than the experimental treatment occurs during the course of an experiment that affects the dependent variable
Tác động của quá khứ
Host
The computer location where the content for a particular Web site physically resides and is accessed.
Chủ
Human subjects review committee
An official group that carefully reviews proposed research design to try to make sure that no harm can come to any research participant.
Ủy ban xem xét các vấn đề về con người
Hypothesis
Formal statement of an unproven proposition that is empirically testable.
Giả thiết
Hypothesis test of a proportion
Test that is conceptually similar to the one used when the mean is the characteristic of interest but that differs in the mathematical formulation of the
standard error of the proportion.
Kiểm định giả thiết của một tỷ lệ
Hypothetical constructs
Variables that are not directly observable but are measurable through indirect indicators, such as verbal expression or overt behavior.
Xây dựng giả thiết
Idealism
A term that reflects the degree to which one bases one’s morality on moral standards
Chủ nghĩa lý tưởng/or chủ nghĩa duy tâm
Image profile
A graphic representation of semantic differential data for competing brands, products, or stores to highlight comparisons.
Hồ sơ hình ảnh
Importance-performance analysis
Another name for quadrant
analysis.
Phân tích góc phần tư
Impute
To fill in a missing data point through the use of a statistical
algorithm that provides a best guess for the missing response
based on available information.
Gán (giá trị)
Independent samples t-test
A test for hypotheses stating the mean scores for some interval- or ratio-scaled variable differ based on some less-than interval classificatory variable
Kiểm định mẫu độc lập
Independent variable
A variable that is expected to influence the dependent variable in some way.
Biến độc lập
Index measure
An index assigns a value based on how much of the concept being measured is associated with an observation.Indexes often are formed by putting several variables together
Phương pháp đo lường chỉ số
Index numbers
Scores or observations recalibrated to indicate how they relate to a base number

Số chỉ số
Index of retail saturation
A calculation that describes the relationship between retail demand and supply.
Chỉ số bão hòa bán lẻ
Inductive reasoning
The logical process of establishing a general proposition on the basis of observation of particular facts.
Lập luận quy nạp
Inferential statistics
The use of statistics to project characteristics from a sample to an entire population
Thống kê suy luận
Information completeness
Having the right amount of information.
Đầy đủ thông tin
Information
Data formatted (structured) to support decision making or define the relationship between two facts.
Thông tin
Informed consent
Consent given by an individual who understands what the researcher wants him or her to do and who agrees to participate.
Sự đồng thuận
In-house editing
A rigorous editing job performed by a centralized office staff.
Hiệu chỉnh nội bộ
In-house interviewer
A fieldworker who is employed by the company conducting the research.
Phỏng vấn nội bộ
In-house research
Research performed by employees of the company that will benefit from the research.
Nghiên cứu nội bộ
Instrumentation effect
A nuisance that occurs when a change in the wording of questions, a change in interviewers, or a change in other procedures causes a change in the dependent variable.
Hiệu ứng công cụ
Interaction effect
Differences in dependent variable means due to a specific combination of independent variables
Hiệu ứng tương tác
Interactive medium
A medium, such as the Internet, that a person can use to communicate with and interact with other users.
Môi trường tương tác
Interdependence techniques
Multivariate statistical techniques that give meaning to a set of variables or seek to group things together; no distinction is made between dependent and independent variables.
Kỹ thuật phụ thuộc lẫn nhau
Internal and proprietary data
Secondary data that originate
inside the organization.
Dữ liệu nội bộ và độc quyền
Internal consistency
A measure’s homogeneity or the extent to which each indicator of a concept converges on some common meaning.
Thống nhất nội bộ
Internal validity
A state that exists to the extent that an experimental variable is truly responsible for any variance in the dependent variable.
Giá trị bên trong
Internet
A worldwide network of computers that allows users access to information from distant sources.
Mạng Internet
Internet survey
A self-administered questionnaire posted on a
Web site
Khảo sát qua mạng
Interpretation
The process of drawing inferences from the analysis results.
Sự giải thích
Interquartile range
A measure of variability.
Khoảng tứ phân vị
Interrogative techniques
Asking multiple what, where, who, when, why, and how questions.
Kỹ thuật nghi vấn
Interval scales
Scales that have both nominal and ordinal properties, but that also capture information about differences in quantities of a concept from one observation to the next.
Kích cỡ khoảng
Interviewer bias
A response bias that occurs because the presence of the interviewer influences respondents’ answers.
Sai lệch phỏng vấn
Interviewer error
Mistakes made by interviewers failing to record  survey responses correctly.
Lỗi phỏng vấn
Intranet
A company’s private data network that uses Internet
standards and technology
Mạng nội bộ
Introduction section
The part of the body of a research report that discusses background information and the specific objectives of the research.
Phần giới thiệu
Inverse (negative) relationship
Covariation in which the association between variables is in the opposite direction. As one goes up, the other goes down.
Mối quan hệ nghịch đảo (tiêu cực)
Judgment (purposive) sampling
A nonprobability sampling technique in which an experienced individual selects the sample based on personal judgment about some appropriate characteristic of the sample member.
Dự đoán mang tính phán đoán
Keyword search
A type of computerized search that takes placeas the search engine searches through millions of web pages for documents containing the keywords
Tìm từ khóa
Knowledge management
The process of creating an inclusive,
Comprehensive, easily accessible organizational memory, often
Called the organization’s intellectual capital.
Quản trị tri thức
Knowledge
A blend of previous experience, insight, and data that forms (organizational) memory
Kiến thức
Laboratory experiment
A type of research in which the researcherhas more complete control over the research setting and extraneous variables.
Thử nghiệm trong phòng thí nghiệm
Latent construct
A concept that is not directly observable or measurable, but can be estimated through proxy measures.
Cấu trúc tiềm tàng
Leading question
A question that suggests or implies certain answers.
Câu hỏi dẫn dắt
Likert scale
A measure of attitudes designed to allow respondents to rate how strongly they agree or disagree with carefully constructed statements, ranging from very positive to very negative attitudes toward some object.
Tiêu chuẩn likert

Literature review
A directed search of published works, including periodicals and books that discusses theory and presents empirical results that are relevant to the topic at hand.
Tổng quan tài liệu
Loaded question
A question that suggests a socially desirable answer
Or that is emotionally charged
Câu hỏi xây dựng
Longitudinal study
A survey of respondents at different times,thus allowing analysis of response continuity and changes over
Time.
Nghiên cứu theo chiều dọc
Mail survey
A self-administered questionnaire sent to respondents through the mail.
Khảo sát qua thư từ
Main effect
The experimental difference in dependent variable means between the different levels of any single experimental variable.
Tác động chính
Mall intercept interviews
Personal interviews conducted in a shopping mall.
Phỏng vấn chặn
Manager of decision support systems
Employee who supervises the collection and analysis of sales, inventory, and other periodic customer relationship management (crm) data.
Quản lý các hệ thống hỗ trợ quyết định
Managerial action standard
A specific performance criterion upon which a decision can be based.
Tiêu chuẩn hoạt động quản lý
Manipulation
Means that the researcher alters the level of the variable in specific increments.
Vận dụng
Manipulation check
A validity test of an experimental manipulation to make sure that the manipulation does produce differences in the independent variable.
Kiểm tra thao tác
Marginal
Row and column totals in a contingency table, which
Are shown in its margins
Cận biên
Market tracking
The observation and analysis of trends in industry volume and brand share over time.
Theo dõi thị trường
Market-basket analysis
A form of data mining that analyzes
Anonymous point-of-sale transaction databases to identify coinciding
Purchases or relationships between products purchased
And other retail shopping information.
Phân tích giỏ thị trường
Marketing-oriented
A term describing a firm in which all decisions are made with a conscious awareness of their effect on the customer.
Định hướng tiếp thị
Maturation effects
Effects that are a function of time and the naturally occurring events that coincide with growth and experience.
Tác động đúng thời điểm
Mean
A measure of central tendency; the arithmetic average.
Giá trị trung bình.
Là giá trị trung bình số học của một biến, được tính bằng tổng các giá trị quan sát chia cho số quan sát. Đây là dạng công cụ thường được dùng cho dạng đo khoảng cách và tỷ lệ. Giá trị trung bình có đặc điểm là chịu sự tác động của các giá trị ở mỗi quan sát, do đó đây là thang đo nhạy cảm nhất đối với sự thay đổi của các giá trị quan sát
Measure of association
A general term that refers to a number of bivariate statistical techniques used to measure the strength of a relationship between two variables.
Đo lường sự kết hợp
Measurement
The process of describing some property of a phenomenon of interest, usually by assigning numbers in a reliable and valid way
Hệ thống đo lường
Median
A measure of central tendency that is the midpoint; the value below which half the values in a distribution fall.
Trung vị.
Là số nằm giữa (nếu lượng quan sát là số lẽ) hoặc là giá trị trung bình của hai quan sát nằm giữa (nếu số lượng quan sát là số chẳn) của một dãy quan sát được xắp xếp theo thứ tự từ nhỏ đến lớn. Đây là dạng công cụ thống kê thường được dùng để đo lường mức độ tập trung của dạng dữ liệu thang đo thứ tự, nó có đặc điểm là không bị ảnh hưởng của các giá trị đầu mút của dãy phân phối, do đó rất thích hợp để phân tích đối với dữ liệu có sự chênh lệch lớn về giá trị ở hay đầu mút của dãy phân phối.
Median split
Dividing a data set into two categories by placing respondents below the median in one category and respondents above the median in another
Chia trung bình
Mixed-mode survey
A study that employs any combination of survey methods.
Khảo sát phương thức hỗn hợp
Mode
A measure of central tendency; the value that occurs most often
Là số nằm giữa (nếu lượng quan sát là số lẽ) hoặc là giá trị trung bình của hai quan sát nằm giữa (nếu số lượng quan sát là số chẳn) của một dãy quan sát được xắp xếp theo thứ tự từ nhỏ đến lớn. Đây là dạng công cụ thống kê thường được dùng để đo lường mức độ tập trung của dạng dữ liệu thang đo thứ tự, nó có đặc điểm là không bị ảnh hưởng của các giá trị đầu mút của dãy phân phối, do đó rất thích hợp để phân tích đối với dữ liệu có sự chênh lệch lớn về giá trị ở hay đầu mút của dãy phân phối.
Model building
The use of secondary data to help specify relationships between two or more variables; it can involve the development of descriptive or predictive equations.
Xây dựng mô hình
Moderator variable
A third variable that changes the nature of a relationship between the original independent and dependent
Variables.
Biến điều tiết
Moderator
A person who leads a focus group interview and ensures that everyone gets a chance to speak and contribute to the discussion.
Người điều tiết, người trung gian đứng ra dàn xếp, hòa giải.

Monadic rating scale
Any measure of attitudes that asks respondents about a single concept in isolation.
Thang đánh giá monadic
Moral standards
Principles that reflect beliefs about what is ethical and what is unethical
Tiêu chuẩn đạo đức
Multicollinearity
The extent to which independent variables in a multiple regression analysis are correlated with each other; high multicollinearity can make interpreting parameter estimates difficult or impossible.
Đa cộng tuyến

An analysis of association in which the effects of two or more independent variables on a single, interval-scaled dependent variable are investigated simultaneously.
Phân tích hồi qui đa biến
Multiple-grid question
Several similar questions arranged in a grid format.
Một số câu hỏi tương tự sắp xếp theo định dạng lưới
Multistage area sampling
A type of sampling that involves using a combination of two or more probability sampling techniques.
Chọn mẫu nhiều giai đoạn
Multivariate analysis of variance (manova)
A multivariate technique that predicts multiple continuous dependent variables with one or more categorical independent variables.
Phân tích phương sai nhiều chiều
Multivariate statistical analysis
Statistical analysis involving three or more variables or sets of variables.
Phân tích thống kê đa biến
Mutually exclusive
A grouping in which no overlap exists among the fixed-alternative categories
Sự tương phản
Neural networks
A form of artificial intelligence in which a computer is programmed to mimic the way that human brains process information.
Mạng nơron
Nominal scales
Ranking scales that represent the most elementary level of measurement in which values are assigned to an object for identification or classification purposes only
Thang đo danh nghĩa
Nonparametric statistics
A type of statistics appropriate when the variables being analyzed do not conform to any known or continuous distribution.
Phương pháp thống kê phi tham số
Nonprobability sampling
A sampling technique in which units of the sample are selected on the basis of personal judgment or convenience; the probability of any particular member of the population being chosen is unknown.
Phương pháp chọn mẫu phi ngẫu nhiên
Nonrespondents
People who are not contacted or who refuse to cooperate in the research.
Những người không liên lạc hoặc từ chối hợp tác trong việc nghiên cứu.
Normal distribution
A symmetrical, bell-shaped distribution that describes the expected probability distribution of many chance
Occurrences
Phân phối chuẩn hóa
Nuisance variables
Items that may affect the dependent measure but are not of primary interest.
Biến trở ngại
Numerical scale
An attitude rating scale similar to a semantic differential except that it uses numbers instead of verbal descriptions as response options to identify response positions.
Thang số
Observation
The systematic process of recording the behavioral patterns of people, objects, and occurrences as they are witnessed.
Một quá trình ghi nhận lại một cách có hệ thống những hành vi ứng xử của con người, những sự việc, sự kiện xảy ra khi họ được theo dõi.
Observer bias
A distortion of measurement resulting from the cognitive behavior or actions of a witnessing observer
Độ lệch của đánh giá gây ra bởi những hành vi dựa trên kinh nghiệm của người quan sát.
Online focus group
A qualitative research effort in which a group of individuals provides unstructured comments by entering their remarks into an electronic internet display board of some type.
Phỏng vấn nhóm trực tuyến
Open-ended boxes
In an internet questionnaire, boxes where respondents can type in their own answers to open-ended questions.
Trong bảng câu hỏi trên mạng, nơi mà người trả lời có thể đánh máy câu trả lời của họ dành cho những câu hỏi mở.
Open-ended response questions
Questions that pose some problem and ask respondents to answer in their own words.
Những câu hỏi nêu lên một vấn đề mở nào đó nhằm yêu cầu người trả lời nêu lên hướng giải quyết riêng của mình.
Operationalization
The process of identifying scales that correspond to variance in a concept to be involved in a research process.
Quá trình xác định quy mô tương ứng với phương sai trong một trường hợp có lien quan đến quá trình nghiên cứu.
Operationalizing
The process of identifying the actual measurement scales to assess the variables of interest.
Quá trình xác định quy mô đo lường chính xác nhằm đánh giá biến số sở thích.
Opt in
To give permission to receive selected e-mail, such as questionnaires,
From a company with an internet presence
Cho phép nhận email đã được chọn như là bảng câu hỏi từ công ty có nối mạng internet.
Optical scanning system
A data processing input device that
Reads material directly from mark-sensed questionnaires
Một thiết bị nhập dữ liệu đọc dữ liệu trực tiếp từ bảng câu hỏi nhận dạng.
Oral presentation
A spoken summary of the major findings, conclusions, and recommendations, given to clients or line managers to provide them with the opportunity to clarify any ambiguous issues by asking questions.
Một bài thuyết trình ngắn gọn về những kết luận và đề nghị chính dành cho khách hang hoặc nhà quản lí nhằm cung cấp cho họ những gợi ý để sắp xếp những vấn đề mơ hồ bằng cách đặt câu hỏi.
Order bias
Bias caused by the influence of earlier questions in a questionnaire or by an answer’s position in a set of answers.
Định kiến gây ra bởi sự ảnh hưởng của những câu hỏi trước đó trong bảng câu hỏi hoặc bởi vị trí của một câu trả lời trong toàn bộ các câu trả lời.
Ordinal scales
Ranking scales allowing items to be arranged based on how much of some quality they possess
Quy mô cho phép phần tử được sắp xếp dựa trên mức độ đặt trưng mà phần tử đó mang.
Outlier
A value that lies outside the normal range of the data.
Một giá trị nằm ngoài cơ sở dữ liệu.
Outside agency
An independent research firm contracted by the company that actually will benefit from the research.
Một công ty nghiên cứu độc lập thực hiện nghiên cứu cho công ty khác.
Paired comparison

A measurement technique that involves
Presenting the respondent with two objects and asking therespondent to pick the preferred object; more than two objectsmay be presented, but comparisons are made in pairs.
So sánh cặp
Paired-samples t-test
An appropriate test for comparing the scores of two interval variables drawn from related populations.
Kiềm tra theo mẫu cặp
Parametric statistics
Statistics that involve numbers with known, continuous distributions; when the data are interval or ratio scaled and the sample size is large, parametric statistical procedures are appropriate.
Thống kê tham số
Partial correlation
The correlation between two variables after taking into account the fact that they are correlated with other variables too.
Tương quan riêng
Participant-observation
An ethnographic research approach where the researcher becomes immersed within the culture that he or she is studying and draws data from his or her observations.
Quan sát tham dự
Percentage distribution
A frequency distribution organized into a table (or graph) that summarizes percentage values associated with particular values of a variable.
Sự tính từng khoản theo tỷ lệ phân2 trăm
Performance-monitoring research
Research that regularly, sometimes routinely, provides feedback for evaluation and control of business activity.
Nghiên cứu thực hiện giám sát
Personal interview

Face-to-face communication in which an interviewer asks a respondent to answer questions.
Phỏng vấn cá nhân
Phenomenology

A philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea that human experience itself is inherently subjective and determined by the context in which people live.
Hiện tượng học
Piggyback

A procedure in which one respondent stimulates thought among the others; as this process continues, increasingly
Creative insights are possible.
Lắp ngược
Pilot study

A small-scale research project that collects data from
Respondents similar to those to be used in the full study.
Nghiên cứu mở đầu/ sơ bộ
Pivot question
.
A filter question used to determine which version of a second question will be asked
Câu hỏi then chốt
Placebo

An experimental tool used to create the perception that some substance or procedure has been administered.
Giả dược
Placebo effect
The effect in a dependent variable associated withthe psychological impact that goes along with knowledge of some treatment being administered.

Hiệu ứng giả dược
Plug value

An answer that an editor “plugs in” to replace blanks or missing values so as to permit data analysis; the choice of
Value is based on a predetermined decision rule.
Giá trị cắm
Point estimate

An estimate of the population mean in the form of a single value, usually the sample mean.
Ước lượng điểm
Pooled estimate of the standard error

An estimate of the standard
Error for a t-test of independent means that assumes the variances of both groups are equal.
Ước tính gộp sai số chuẩn
Population (universe)

Any complete group of entities that share some common set of characteristics.
Dân số
Population distribution

A frequency distribution of the elements
Of a population.
Phân bố dân cư
Population element
An individual member of a population.
Yếu tố dân số
Population parameters

Variables in a population or measured
Characteristics of the population.
Thông số dân số
Pop-up boxes

In an internet questionnaire, boxes that appear at selected points and contain information or instructions for
Respondents.
Hộp trình đơn bật lên
Preliminary tabulation

A tabulation of the results of a pretest
To help determine whether the questionnaire will meet the objectives of the research.
Bảng kết quả sơ bộ
Pretest

A small-scale study in which the results are only preliminary and intended only to assist in design of a subsequent study.
Kiểm tra trước
Pretesting

A screening procedure that involves a trial run with a
Group of respondents to iron out fundamental problems in the
Survey design.
Kiểm tra trước
Primary sampling unit (PSU)

A term used to designate a unit
Selected in the first stage of sampling.
Đơn vị lấy mẫu lần đầu
Probability

The long-run relative frequency with which an event
Will occur.
Xác suất
Probability sampling

A sampling technique in which every
Member of the population has a known, nonzero probability of
Selection.
Lấy mẫu ngẫu nhiên
Probing

An interview technique that tries to draw deeper and more elaborate explanations from the discussion.
Thăm dò
Problem

A situation that occurs when there is a difference between the current conditions and a more preferable set of conditions.
Vấn đề
Problem definition

The process of defining and developing adecision statement and the steps involved in translating it into
More precise research terminology, including a set of research
Objectives.
Định nghĩa bài toán
Product-oriented

A term used to describe a firm that prioritizesdecision making in a way that emphasizes technical superiority
In the product.
Định hướng sản phẩm
Production-oriented

A term used to describe a firm that prioritizesefficiency and effectiveness of the production processes in making
Decisions.
Định hướng sản xuất
Projective technique
An indirect means of questioning enablingrespondents to project beliefs and feelings onto a third party, an
Inanimate object, or a task situation.

Kỹ thuật chiếu xạ
Proportion
The percentage of elements that meet some criterion.
Tỷ lệ
Proportional stratified

Sample a stratified sample in which
The number of sampling units drawn from each stratum is inproportion to the population size of that stratum.
Tỷ lệ phân tầng
Propositions

Statements explaining the logical linkage amongcertain concepts by asserting a universal connection between
Concepts.
Mệnh đề
Proprietary business research

The gathering of new data to
Investigate specific problems.
Nghiên cứu kinh doanh độc quyền
Pseudo-research

A study conducted not to gather information formarketing decisions but to bolster a point of view and satisfy
Other needs.
Giả nghiên cứu
Psychogalvanometer

A device that measures galvanic skin
Response, a measure of involuntary changes in the electrical resistance of the skin.
Dụng cụ đo phản ứng thần kinh khi tác động điện

Pull technology

A procedure by which consumers request information from a web page and the browser then determines a
Response; the consumer is essentially asking for the data.
Công nghệ kéo
Pupilometer

A mechanical device used to observe and record changes in the diameter of a subject’s pupils.
Dụng cụ đo đồng tử
Push button

In a dialog box on an internet questionnaire, a smalloutlined area, such as a rectangle or an arrow, that the respondentclicks on to select an option or perform a function, such as submit.
Nút bấm
Push poll
Telemarketing under guise of research.
Hình thức thăm dò ý kiến
Push technology

A program that sends data to a user’s computer without a request being made; software is used to guess what
Information might be interesting to consumers based on the pattern of previous responses.
Công nghệ đẩy
P-value

Probability value, or the observed or computed significancelevel; p-values are compared to significance levels to test hypotheses.
Giá trị p
Quadrant analysis

An extension of cross-tabulation in which responses to two rating-scale questions are plotted in four
Quadrants of a two-dimensional table.
Phân tích góc phần tư
Qualitative business research

Research that addresses business
Objectives through techniques that allow the researcher to provide
Elaborate interpretations of phenomena without depending on numerical measurement; its focus is on discovering true inner meanings and new insights.
Nghiên cứu kinh doanh chất lượng
Qualitative data

Data that are not characterized by numbers, and
Instead are textual, visual, or oral; the focus is on stories, visual
Portrayals, meaningful characterizations, interpretations, and
Other expressive descriptions.
Dữ liệu định tính
Quantitative business research

Business research that addresses
Research objectives through empirical assessments that involve
Numerical measurement and analysis.
Nghiên cứu kinh doanh định lượng
Quantitative data

Data that represent phenomena by assigning
Numbers in an ordered and meaningful way.
Dữ liệu định lượng
Quasi-experimental designs

Experimental designs that do
Not involve random allocation of subjects to treatment
Combinations.
Thiết kế bán ngẫu
Quota sampling

A nonprobability sampling procedure that ensures that various subgroups of a population will be represented on
Pertinent characteristics to the exact extent that the investigator desires.
Lấy mẫu theo nhóm
Radio button

In an internet questionnaire, a circular icon resembling
A button that activates one response choice and deactivates
Others when a respondent clicks on it.
Nút radio
Random digit dialing

The use of telephone exchanges and a
Table of random numbers to contact respondents with unlisted
Phone numbers.
Quay số ngẫu nhiên
Random sampling error

A statistical fluctuation that occurs
Because of chance variation in the elements selected for a
Sample.
Lỗi lấy mẫu ngẫu nhiên
Randomization

The random assignment of subject and treatments to groups; it is one device for equally distributing the effects of
Extraneous variables to all conditions.
Ngẫu nhiên hóa
Randomized-block design

A design that attempts to isolate the
Effects of a single extraneous variable by blocking out its effectso n the dependent variable.
Thiết kế khối ngẫu nhiên
Ranking

A measurement task that requires respondents to rank order a small number of stores, brands, or objects on the basis of overall preference or some characteristic of the stimulus.
Xếp hạng
Rating

A measurement task that requires respondents to estimate the magnitude of a characteristic or quality that a brand, store, or object possesses.
Đánh giá
Ratio scales

Ranking scales that represent the highest form of measurement
In that they have all the properties of interval scales with the additional attribute of representing absolute quantities; characterized by a meaningful absolute zero.
Quy mô tỷ lệ
Raw data

The unedited responses from a respondent exactly as
Indicated by that respondent.
Dữ liệu thô
Record

A collection of related fields that represents the responses from one sampling unit.
Ghi âm, ghi chép
Refusals

People who are unwilling to participate in a research project.
Từ chối
Relativism

The rejection of moral standards in favor of the acceptability of some action. This way of thinking rejects absolute principles in favor of situation-based evaluations.
Yếu tố tương đối
Relevance

The characteristics of data reflecting how pertinent these particular facts are to the situation at hand.
Sự xác đáng
Reverse coding

Coding in which the value assigned for a response is treated oppositely from the other items.
Mã hóa đảo ngược
Reverse directory

A directory similar to a telephone directory except that listings are by city and street address or by phone number rather than alphabetical by last name.
Thư mục đảo ngược
Reverse recoding

A method of making sure all the items forming a composite scale are scored in the same direction. Negative items can be recoded into the equivalent responses for a nonreverse coded item.
Mã hóa đảo ngược
Rule of parsimony

The rule of parsimony suggests an explanation involving fewer components is better than one involving more.
Quy định của sự cẩn thận
Sample
A subset, or some part, of a larger population.
Mẫu
Sample bias

A persistent tendency for the results of a sample to deviate in one direction from the true value of the population
Parameter.
Mẫu thiên lệch
Sample distribution
A frequency distribution of a sample.
Phân phối chọn mẫu
Sample selection error

An administrative error caused by
Improper sample design or sampling procedure execution.
Lỗi chọn mẫu
Sample statistics

Variables in a sample or measures computed from sample data.
Thống kê mẫu
Sample survey
A more formal term for a survey.
Sự điều tra chọn mẫu/ qua mẫu
Sampling

Any procedure that draws conclusions based on measurements
Of a portion of the population.
Chuẩn bị mẫu
Sampling distribution

A theoretical probability distribution of
Sample means for all possible samples of a certain size drawn
From a particular population.
Phân phối mẫu
Sampling frame

A list of elements from which a sample may be drawn, also called working population.
Cốt để định mẫu
Sampling frame error

An error that occurs when certain sample elements are not listed or are not accurately represented in a
Sampling frame.
Lỗi khung lấy mẫu
Sampling unit

A single element or group of elements subject to selection in the sample.
Đơn vị lấy mẫu
Scales

A device providing a range of values that correspond to different values in a concept being measured.
Cân
Scanner data

The accumulated records resulting from point of sale
Data recordings.
Dữ liệu máy quét
Scanner-based consumer panel

A type of consumer panel in
Which participants’ purchasing habits are recorded with a laser scanner rather than with a purchase diary.
Máy quét dựa trên bảng điều khiển của người tiêu dùng
Scientific method

A set of prescribed procedures for establishing and connecting theoretical statements about events, for analyzing
Empirical evidence, and for predicting events yet unknown; techniques or procedures used to analyze empirical evidence in an attempt to confirm or disprove prior conceptions.
Phương pháp khoa học
Search engine

A computerized directory that allows anyone to search the world wide web for information using a keyword search.
Công cụ tìm kiếm
Secondary data

Data that have been previously collected for some purpose other than the one at hand.
Dữ liệu thứ cấp
Secondary sampling unit

A unit selected in the second stage of
Sampling.
Đơn vị lấy mẫu thứ cấp
Selection effect

Sample bias from differential selection of respondents for experimental groups.
Hiệu quả chọn lọc
Self-administered questionnaires

Surveys in which the respondent
Takes the responsibility for reading and answering the questions.
Câu hỏi tự quản
Self-selection bias

A bias that occurs because people who feel strongly about a subject are more likely to respond to survey questions than people who feel indifferent about it.
Thiên hướng tự bình chọn
Semantic differential

A measure of attitudes that consists of a series of seven-point rating scales that use bipolar adjectives to
Anchor the beginning and end of each scale.
Khác biệt ngữ nghĩa
Sensitivity

A measurement instrument’s ability to accurately measure variability in stimuli or responses.
Độ cảm ứng
Significance level

A critical probability associated with a statistical hypothesis test that indicates how likely an inference supporting
A difference between an observed value and some statistical expectation is true; the acceptable level of type i error.
Mức có nghĩa
Simple (bivariate) linear regression

A measure of linear association
That investigates straight-line relationships between a continuous
Dependent variable and an independent variable that is usually continuous but can be a categorical dummy variable.
Hồi quy tuyến tính
Simple random sampling

A sampling procedure that assures each element in the population of an equal chance of being included
In the sample.
Lấy mẫu ngẫu nhiên
Simple-dichotomy (dichotomous) question

A fixed-alternative question that  requires the respondent to choose one of two alternatives.
Câu hỏi lưỡng phân
Single-source data

Diverse types of data offered by a single company, usually integrated on the basis of a common variable such
As geographic area or store.
Dữ liệu nguồn duy nhất
Site analysis techniques

Techniques that use secondary data to
Select the best location for retail or wholesale operations.
Kỹ thuật phân tích trên hiện trường
Situation analysis

The gathering of background information to familiarize researchers and managers with the decision-making environment.
Phân tích tình huống
Smart agent software

Software capable of learning an internet user’s preferences and automatically searching out information
In selected web sites and then distributing it.
Phần mếm thông minh
Snowball sampling

A sampling procedure in which initial respondents are selected by probability methods and additional respondents
Are obtained from information provided by the initial respondents.
Lấy mẫu mở rộng dần
Social desirability bias

 bias in responses caused by respondents’ desire, either conscious or unconscious, to gain prestige or
Appear in a different social role.
Thiên hướng hỏi lấy lòng
Sorting

A measurement task that presents a respondent with several objects or product concepts and requires the respondent to arrange the objects into piles or classify the product concepts.
Sự tuyển chọn
Split-ballot technique

The practice of using two alternative phrasings of the same question for respective halves of a sample to
Elicit a more accurate total response than would a single phrasing.
Kỹ thuật chia lá phiếu
Split-half method

A method for assessing internal consistency by checking the results of one-half of a set of scaled items against the results from the other half.
Phương pháp phân chia một nửa
Spyware

Software placed on a computer without consent or knowledge of the user.
Phầm mềm gián điệp
Standard deviation

A quantitative index of a distribution’s spread, or variability; the square root of the variance for a distribution.
Độ lệch chuẩn
Standard error of the mean

The standard deviation of the sampling
Distribution.
Sai số chuẩn của giá trị trung bình
Standardized normal distribution

 a purely theoretical probability
Distribution that reflects a specific normal curve for the
Standardized value, z.
Phân phối chuẩn
Standardized regression coefficient (_)

The estimated coefficient
Indicating the strength of relationship between an independent variable and dependent variable expressed on a
Standardized scale where higher absolute values indicate stronger
Relationships (range is from –1 to 1).
Hệ số hồi quy chuẩn
Standardized research service

Companies that develop a unique
Methodology for investigating a business specialty area.
Dịch vụ nghiên cứu tiêu chuẩn hóa
Stratified sampling

A probability sampling procedure in which simple random subsamples that are more or less equal on some characteristic are drawn from within each stratum of the population.
Lấy mẫu phân tầng
String characters

Computer terminology to represent formatting a variable using a series of alphabetic characters (nonnumeric
Characters) that may form a word.
Chuỗi ký tự
Structured question

A question that imposes a limit on the number of allowable responses.
Câu hỏi có cấu trúc
Subjective
A term meaning research results are researcher-dependent,meaning different researchers may reach different conclusions based
On the same interview.
Chủ quan
Subjects

The sampling units for an experiment, usually human respondents who provide measures based on the experimental manipulation.
Khách quan
Summated scale

A scale created by simply summing (adding together) the response to each item making up the composite
Measure.
Thang cộng
Survey

A research technique in which a sample is interviewed in some form or the behavior of respondents is observed and
Described in some way.
Cuộc khảo sát
Symptoms

Observable cues that serve as a signal of a problem because they are caused by that problem.
Triệu chứng
Syndicated service

A research supplier that provides standardized information for many clients in return for a fee.
Dịch vụ cung cấp thông tin
Systematic error

Error resulting from some imperfect aspect of the research design that causes respondent error or from a
Mistake in the execution of the research.
Lỗi hệ thống
Systematic or nonsampling error

A type of error that occurs if the sampling units in an experimental cell are somehow different than the units in another cell, and this difference affects the dependent variable.
Lỗi hệ thống hoặc không lấy mẫu
Systematic sampling

A sampling procedure in which a starting point is selected by a random process and then every nth number
On the list is selected.
Lấy mẫu hệ thống
Sample
A subset, or some part, of a larger population.
Mọi tập các quan sát hay các số liệu đo được đối với một biến cụ thể nào đó, mà không gồm tất cả các quan sát có thể có.
Sample bias

A persistent tendency for the results of a sample to deviate in one direction from the true value of the population parameter.
Thiên vị mẫu
Sample distribution
A frequency distribution of a sample.
Một phân bố tần số của một mẫu.
Sample selection error

An administrative error caused by improper sample design or sampling procedure execution.
Lỗi chọn mẫu.
Sample statistics

Variables in a sample or measures computed from sample data.
Thống kê mẫu
Sample survey
A more formal term for a survey.
Điều tra mẫu
Sampling

Any procedure that draws conclusions based on measurements of a portion of the population.
Lấy mẫu
Sampling distribution

A theoretical probability distribution of sample means for all possible samples of a certain size drawn from a particular population.
Phân phối lấy mẫu
Sampling frame

A list of elements from which a sample may be drawn, also called working population.
Khung lấy mẫu
Sampling frame error

An error that occurs when certain sample elements are not listed or are not accurately represented in a sampling frame.
Lỗi khung lấy mẫu
Sampling unit

A single element or group of elements subject to selection in the sample.
Đơn vị lấy mẫu
Scales

A device providing a range of values that correspond to different values in a concept being measured.
Quy mô
Scanner data

The accumulated records resulting from point of sale data recordings.
Dữ liệu máy quét
Scanner-based consumer panel

A type of consumer panel in
which participants’ purchasing habits are recorded with a laser
scanner rather than with a purchase diary.
Máy quét dựa trên bảng điều khiển của người tiêu dùng
Scientific method

A set of prescribed procedures for establishing and connecting theoretical statements about events, for analyzing empirical evidence, and for predicting events yet unknown; techniques or procedures used to analyze empirical evidence in an attempt to confirm or disprove prior conceptions.
Phương pháp khoa học
Search engine

A computerized directory that allows anyone to search the World Wide Web for information using a keyword search.
Công cụ tìm kiếm
Secondary data

Data that have been previously collected for some purpose other than the one at hand.
Dữ liệu thứ cấp
Secondary sampling unit

A unit selected in the second stage of sampling.
Đơn vị lấy mẫu thứ cấp
Selection effect

Sample bias from differential selection of respondents for experimental groups.
Hiệu quả chọn lọc
Self-administered questionnaires

Surveys in which the respondent
takes the responsibility for reading and answering the questions.
Các cuộc điều tra trong đó người trả lời có trách nhiệm cho việc đọc và trả lời các câu hỏi.
Self-selection bias

A bias that occurs because people who feel strongly about a subject are more likely to respond to survey questions than people who feel indifferent about it.
Thiên vị tự lựa chọn
Semantic differential

A measure of attitudes that consists of a series of seven-point rating scales that use bipolar adjectives to anchor the beginning and end of each scale.
Khác biệt ngữ nghĩa
Sensitivity

A measurement instrument’s ability to accurately measure variability in stimuli or responses.
Nhạy cảm
Significance level

A critical probability associated with a statistical hypothesis test that indicates how likely an inference supporting a difference between an observed value and some statistical expectation is true; the acceptable level of Type I error.
Mức ý nghĩa
Simple (bivariate) linear regression

A measure of linear association
that investigates straight-line relationships between a continuous dependent variable and an independent variable that is usually continuous but can be a categorical dummy variable.
Đơn giản hồi quy tuyến tính (hai chiều)
Simple random sampling

A sampling procedure that assures each element in the population of an equal chance of being included in the sample.
Đơn giản lấy mẫu ngẫu nhiên
Simple-dichotomy (dichotomous) question

A fixed-alternative question that requires the respondent to choose one of two alternatives.
Đơn giản-sự phân đôi (phân đôi) câu hỏi
Single-source data

Diverse types of data offered by a single company, usually integrated on the basis of a common variable such as geographic area or store.
Dữ liệu nguồn duy nhất
Site analysis techniques

Techniques that use secondary data to select the best location for retail or wholesale operations.
Kỹ thuật phân tích trang web
Situation analysis

The gathering of background information to familiarize researchers and managers with the decision-making environment.
Phân tích tình hình
Smart agent software

Software capable of learning an Internet user’s preferences and automatically searching out information in selected Web sites and then distributing it.
Phần mềm đại lý thông minh
Snowball sampling

A sampling procedure in which initial respondents are selected by probability methods and additional respondents are obtained from information provided by the initial respondents.
Lấy mẫu quả cầu tuyết
Một thủ tục lấy mẫu mà người trả lời ban đầu được lựa chọn theo phương pháp xác suất và phỏng vấn thêm thu được từ các thông tin được cung cấp bởi ban đầu người trả lời.
Social desirability bias

Bias in responses caused by respondents’desire, either conscious or unconscious, to gain prestige or appear in a different social role.
Thiên vị trong phản ứng gây ra bởi người trả lời mong muốn, hoặc là có ý thức hay vô thức, để đạt được uy tín, xuất hiện trong một vai trò xã hội khác nhau.
Sorting

A measurement task that presents a respondent with several objects or product concepts and requires the respondent to arrange the objects into piles or classify the product concepts.
Sắp xếp
Split-ballot technique

The practice of using two alternative phrasings of the same question for respective halves of a sample to elicit a more accurate total response than would a single phrasing.
Kỹ thuật chia lá phiếu
Split-half method

A method for assessing internal consistency by checking the results of one-half of a set of scaled items against the results from the other half.
Phương pháp phân chia một nửa
Spyware

Software placed on a computer without consent or knowledge of the user.
Phần mềm gián điệp
Standard deviation

A quantitative index of a distribution’s spread, or variability; the square root of the variance for a distribution.
Độ lệch chuẩn
Standard error of the mean

The standard deviation of the sampling distribution.
Độ lệch chuẩn của các mẫu
Phân phối.
Standardized normal distribution

A purely theoretical probability
distribution that reflects a specific normal curve for the
standardized value, Z.
Phân phối chuẩn
Standardized regression coefficient (_)

The estimated coefficient indicating the strength of relationship between an independent variable and dependent variable expressed on a standardized scale where higher absolute values indicate stronger relationships (range is from –1 to 1).
Hệ số hồi quy chuẩn (_)
Standardized research service

Companies that develop a unique methodology for investigating a business specialty area.
Dịch vụ nghiên cứu tiêu chuẩn hóa
Stapel scale

A measure of attitudes that consists of a single adjective
in the center of an even number of numerical values.
Quy mô Stapel
Một thước đo về thái độ bao gồm một tính từ duy nhất ở trung tâm của một số chẵn các giá trị số.
Statistical base

The number of respondents or observations (in a row or column) used as a basis for computing percentages.
Cơ sở thống kê
Status bar

In an Internet questionnaire, a visual indicator that tells the
respondent what portion of the survey he or she has completed.
Thanh trạng thái
Stratified sampling

A probability sampling procedure in which simple
random subsamples that are more or less equal on some characteristic are drawn from within each stratum of the population.
Lấy mẫu phân tầng
String characters

Computer terminology to represent formatting a variable using a series of alphabetic characters (nonnumeric characters) that may form a word.
Chuỗi ký tự
Structured question

A question that imposes a limit on the number of allowable responses.
Câu hỏi có cấu trúc
Subjective

A term meaning research results are researcher-dependent, meaning different researchers may reach different conclusions based on the same interview.
Chủ quan
Subjects

The sampling units for an experiment, usually human
respondents who provide measures based on the experimental manipulation.
Đối tượng
Summated scale

A scale created by simply summing (adding together) the response to each item making up the composite measure.
Quy mô summated
Survey

A research technique in which a sample is interviewed in some form or the behavior of respondents is observed and
described in some way.
Khảo sát
Symptoms

Observable cues that serve as a signal of a problem because they are caused by that problem.
Triệu chứng
Syndicated service

A research supplier that provides standardized information for many clients in return for a fee.
Dịch vụ cung cấp thông tin
Systematic error

Error resulting from some imperfect aspect of the research design that causes respondent error or from a mistake in the execution of the research.
Lỗi hệ thống
Systematic or nonsampling error

A type of error that occurs if
the sampling units in an experimental cell are somehow different than the units in another cell, and this difference affects the dependent variable.
Lỗi hệ thống hoặc nonsampling
Systematic sampling

A sampling procedure in which a starting point is selected by a random process and then every nth number on the list is selected.
Lấy mẫu hệ thống
Tabulation

The orderly arrangement of data in a table or other summary format showing the number of responses to each response category; tallying.
Sự chia loại
Tachistoscope

A device that controls the amount of time a subject is exposed to a visual image.
Tachistoscope
T-distribution

A symmetrical, bell-shaped distribution that is contingent
on sample size, has a mean of 0 and a standard deviation equal to 1.
Phân phối t
Telephone interviews

Personal interviews conducted by telephone, the mainstay of commercial survey research.
Các cuộc phỏng vấn qua điện thoại
Television monitoring

Computerized mechanical observation used to obtain television ratings.
Theo dõi truyền hình
Temporal sequence

One of three criteria for causality that deals with the time order of events—the cause must occur before the effect.
Trình tự thời gian
Tertiary sampling unit

A term used to designate a unit selected in the third stage of sampling.
Đơn vị lấy mẫu đại học
Test of differences

An investigation of a hypothesis stating that two (or more) groups differ with respect to measures on a variable.
Kiểm tra sự khác biệt
Test tabulation

Tallying of a small sample of the total number of replies to a particular question in order to construct coding categories.
Kiểm tra lập bảng
Kiểm đếm của một mẫu nhỏ của tổng số trả lời cho một câu hỏi cụ thể để xây dựng mã hóa
Loại.
Test units

The subjects or entities whose responses to the experimental
treatment are measured or observed.
Các đơn vị kiểm tra
Testing effects

A nuisance effect occurring when the initial measurement
or test alerts or primes subjects in a way that affects their response to the experimental treatments.
Tác động thử nghiệm
Test-market

An experiment that is conducted within actual market conditions.
Kiểm tra thị trường
Test-retest method

A reliability approach involving the administration of the same scale or measure to the same respondents at two separate points in time.
Phương pháp thử nghiệm kiểm tra lại
Thematic apperception test (TAT)

A test that presents subjects
with an ambiguous picture(s) in which consumers and products
are the center of attention; the investigator asks the subject to
tell what is happening in the picture(s) now and what might
happen next.
Kiểm tra chữ apperception chuyên đề (TAT)
Themes

Meaning identified by the frequency with which the same
term (or a synonym) arises in the narrative description.
Chủ đề
Theory

A formal, logical explanation of some events that includes predictions of how things relate to one another.
Lý thuyết
Thurstone scale

An attitude scale in which judges assign scale values to attitudinal statements and subjects are asked to respond
to these statements.
Quy mô Thurstone
Time series design

A research design used for an experiment investigating long-term structural changes.
Thiết kế chuỗi thời gian
Timeliness

A term indicating that the data are current enough to still
be relevant.
Dòng thời gian
Total quality management

A business philosophy that emphasizes market-driven quality as a top organizational priority.
Quản lý chất lượng
Total variability

The sum of within-group variance and betweengroups
variance.
Tổng số biến đổi
Totally exhaustive

A category exists for every respondent in among the fixed-alternative categories.
Hoàn toàn đầy đủ
Tracking study

A type of longitudinal study that uses successive samples to compare trends and identify changes in variables such as consumer satisfaction, brand image, or advertising awareness.
Một loại nghiên cứu theo chiều dọc có sử dụng tiếp mẫu để so sánh và xác định xu hướng thay đổi trong các biến chẳng hạn như sự hài lòng của người tiêu dùng, hình ảnh thương hiệu, hoặc quảng cáo
Nhận thức.
T-test

A hypothesis test that uses the t-distribution. A univariate t-test is appropriate when the variable being analyzed is interval or ratio.
Một thử nghiệm giả thuyết rằng sử dụng phân phối t. Một đơn biến
T-test là thích hợp khi biến được phân tích là khoảng thời gian
Hoặc tỷ lệ.
Type I error

An error caused by rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true; it has a probability of alpha. Practically, a Type I error occurs when the researcher concludes that a relationship or difference exits in the population when in reality it does not exist.
Một lỗi gây ra bởi bác bỏ giả thuyết khi đó là sự thật, nó có khả năng alpha. Thực tế, một lỗi loại I xảy ra khi các nhà nghiên cứu kết luận rằng một mối quan hệ không được gộp chung sự khác biệt trong dân số trong khi thực tế không tồn tại.
Type II error

An error caused by failing to reject the null hypothesis when the alternative hypothesis is true; it has a probability of beta. Practically, a Type II error occurs when a researcher concludes that no relationship or difference exists when in fact one does exist.
Một lỗi gây ra bởi không bác bỏ giả thuyết khi giả thuyết là đúng, nó có một xác suất bản beta. Thực tế, sai lầm loại II xảy ra khi một nhà nghiên cứu kết luận rằng không có mối quan hệ hoặc sự khác biệt tồn tại trong khi thực tế
Một không tồn tại.
Unbalanced rating scale

A fixed-alternative rating scale that has more response categories at one end than the other resulting in an unequal number of positive and negative categories.
Thang đánh giá không cân bằng

Undisguised questions

Straightforward questions that assume the respondent is willing to answer.
Câu hỏi đơn giản mà giả định trả lời là sẵn sàng trả lời.
Uniform resource locator (URL)

A Web site address that Web
browsers recognize.
Một địa chỉ trang web mà Web
Trình duyệt công nhận.
Unit of analysis

What or who should provide the data and at what level of aggregation it should be  nalyzed (organizations, strategic business units, departments, families, individuals . . .).
Đơn vị phân tích
Những gì hoặc những người cần cung cấp các dữ liệu và mức độ của sự kết hợp đó phải được phân tích (các tổ chức, đơn vị chiến lược kinh doanh, cơ quan, gia đình, cá nhân. . .).
Univariate statistical analysis

Tests of hypotheses involving only one variable.
Phân tích thống kê đơn biến
Kiểm tra các giả thuyết chỉ liên quan đến một biến.
Unobtrusive methods

Methods in which research respondents do not have to be disturbed for data to be gathered.
Phương pháp không phô trương
Phương pháp mà người trả lời nghiên cứu làm không phải bị quấy rầy để dữ liệu được thu thập.
Unstructured question

A question that does not restrict the respondents’ answers.
Câu hỏi không có cấu trúc
Một câu hỏi mà không hạn chế câu trả lời của người trả lời.
Validity

The accuracy of a measure or the extent to which a score
truthfully represents a concept.
Hiệu lực

Value labels

Unique labels assigned to each possible numeric code for a response.
Nhãn giá trị
Variable piping software

Software that allows variables to
be inserted into an Internet questionnaire as a respondent is
completing it.
Phần mềm đường ống biến
Phần mềm cho phép biến được chèn vào một bảng câu hỏi internet như một người trả lời là hoàn thành nó.
Variable
.
Anything that varies or changes from one instance to another; variables can exhibit differences in value, usually in magnitude or strength, or in direction
Biến
Variance

A measure of variability or dispersion. Its square root is the standard deviation.
Một biện pháp thay đổi hoặc phân tán. Căn bậc hai của nó là độ lệch chuẩn.
Variate

A mathematical way in which a set of variables can be represented with one equation.
Một cách toán học, trong đó một tập hợp các biến thể được biểu diễn
Với một phương trình.
Verification

Quality-control procedures in fieldwork intended to ensure that interviewers are following the sampling procedures and to determine whether interviewers are cheating.
Xác minh
Thủ tục kiểm soát chất lượng trong nghiên cứu thực địa nhằm mục đích
Đảm bảo rằng người phỏng vấn đang theo dõi các thủ tục lấy mẫu
Và để xác định xem người phỏng vấn là gian lận.
Visible observation

Observation in which the observer’s presence is known to the subject.
Quan sát có thể nhìn thấy
Quan sát, trong đó sự hiện diện của quan sát viên được biết đến.
Voice-pitch analysis

A physiological measurement technique that records abnormal frequencies in the voice that are supposed to reflect emotional reactions to various stimuli.

Phân tích giọng nói
Một kỹ thuật đo lường sinh lý
Ghi tần số bất thường trong giọng nói có nghĩa vụ phải phản ánh phản ứng cảm xúc với các kích thích khác nhau.
Welcome screen

The first Web page in an Internet survey, which introduces the survey and requests that the respondent enter a password or pin.
Trang web đầu tiên trong một cuộc khảo sát Internet, giới thiệu các cuộc điều tra và yêu cầu bị đơn nhập mật khẩu hoặc pin.
Within-group error or variance

The sum of the differences
between observed values and the group mean for a given set of
observations, also known as total error variance.
Tổng số các khác biệt giữa các giá trị quan sát và nhóm có nghĩa là một tập hợp các quan sát, còn được gọi là tổng phương sai lỗi.
Within-subjects design

Involves repeated measures because with each treatment the same subject is measured.
Liên quan đến các biện pháp lặp đi lặp lại bởi vì với mỗi lần điều tra cùng một chủ đề được đo.
World wide web (www)

A portion of the internet that is a
system of computer servers that organize information into documents called Web pages.
Một phần của Internet mà là một
Hệ thống máy chủ mà tổ chức thông tin trong tài liệu gọi là các trang web.
Z-test for differences of proportions

A technique used to test the hypothesis that proportions are significantly different for two
independent samples or groups.
Một kỹ thuật được sử dụng để kiểm tra giả thuyết cho rằng tỷ lệ đáng kể khác nhau cho hai mẫu độc lập hoặc nhóm.



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