Human Resource Management - Glossary

Keyword & English Definition / Keyword in Vietnamese

Absenteeism: Any failure by an employee to report for work as scheduled or to stay at work when scheduled. Sự vắng mặt không có lý do chính đáng
Acceptance rate: Percent of applicants hired divided by total number of applicants offered jobs.
Tỉ lệ chấp nhận/tuyển dụng
Active practice: Performance of job-related tasks and duties by trainees during training.
Hành động thực hiện
Adult learning: Ways in which adults learn differently than younger people. Cách học của người trưởng thành
Adverse selection: Situation in which only higher-risk employees select and use certain benefits. Lựa chọn đối nghịch
Affirmative action: Employers are urged to hire groups of people based on their race, age, gender, or national origin to make up for historical discrimination. Hành động khẳng định
Affirmative action plan (AAP): A document reporting on the composition of an employer’s workforce, required for federal contractors. Kế hoạch hành động khẳng định
Alternate work arrangements: Nontraditional schedules that provide flexibility to employees. Sắp xếp công việc thay thế
Applicant pool: All persons who are actually evaluated for selection. Ứng viên được chọn đánh giá tuyển dụng

Arbitration: Process that uses a neutral third party to make a decision. Trọng tài
Assessment centers: Collections of instruments and exercises designed to diagnose individuals’ development needs. Trung tâm đánh giá
Attitude survey: A survey that focuses on employees’ feelings and beliefs about their jobs and the organization. Khảo sát thái độ
Autonomy: Extent of individual freedom and discretion in the work and its scheduling. Tính tự chủ
Availability analysis: Identifies the number of protected-class members available to work in the appropriate labor markets for given jobs. Phân tích tính sẵn sàng
Balanced scorecard : A framework used to report a diverse set of performance measures. Thẻ điểm cân bằng.
Balance-sheet approach: Compensation plan that equalizes cost differences between the international assignment and the same assignment in the home country. Phương pháp tiếp cận bảng cân đối.
Base pay: Basic compensation that an employee receives, usually as a wage or salary. Lương/tiền công cơ bản

Behavior modeling: Copying someone else’s behavior. Mô hình hóa hành vi
Benchmark jobs :Jobs found in many organizations that can be used for the purposes of comparison. Chuẩn mực nghề nghiệp tham chiếu.
Benchmarking: Comparing the business results to industry standards. Phép đối chuẩn
Benefit: An indirect reward given to an employee or group of employees as part of membership in the organization. Phúc lợi.
Blended learning:Learning approach that combines methods, such as short, fast-paced, interactive computer-based lessons and teleconferencing with traditional classroom instruction and simulation.  Phương pháp học tập tổng hợp.
Blind to differences: Differences among people should be ignored and everyone should be treated equally. Xóa tan những khác biệt.
Bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) :Characteristic providing a legitimate reason why an employer can exclude persons on otherwise illegal bases of consideration. Trình độ chuyên môn nghề nghiệp chân chính. 
Bonus: One-time payment that does not become part of the employee’s base pay. Tiền thưởng.
Broadbanding: Practice of using fewer pay grades with much broader ranges than in traditional compensation systems. Mở rộng thang bậc lương.
Burden of proof :What individuals who file suit against employers must prove in order to establish that illegal discrimination has occurred. Nghĩa vụ chứng minh.

Business necessity :A practice necessary for safe and efficient organizational operations.
Việc nhất thiết phải làm trong kinh doanh
Business process reengineering (BPR): Measures for improving such activities as product development, customer service, and service delivery. Quá trình tái cấu trúc kinh doanh
Career : Series of work-related positions a person occupies throughout life. Nghề nghiệp
Career paths: Represent employees’ movements through opportunities over time. Con đường sự nghiệp . 
Cash balance plan: Retirement program in which benefits are based on an accumulation of annual company contributions plus interest credited each year. Kế hoạch cân đối tiền mặt
Central tendency error: Occurs when a rater gives all employees a score within a narrow range in the middle of the scale. Lỗi xu hướng tập trung.
Churn: Hiring new workers while laying off others. Thay đổi nhân sự
Closed shop: Firm that requires individuals to join a union before they can be hired. Hãng loại đóng / Công ty có tổ chức công đoàn.
Codetermination: Practice whereby union or worker representatives are given positions on a company’s board of directors. Cùng quyết định.
Cognitive ability tests: Tests that measure an individual’s thinking, memory, reasoning, verbal, and mathematical abilities. Cùng quyết định.

Commission :Compensation computed as a percentage of sales in units or dollars. Hoa hồng
Compa-ratio: Pay level divided by the midpoint of the pay range. Tỷ lệ lương thực nhận với điểm giữa của thang lương.
Compensable factor : Job value commonly present throughout a group of jobs within an organization. Yếu tố tính lương
Compensation committee: Subgroup of the board of directors that is composed of directors who are not officers of the firm. Ban bồi thường
Competencies :Individual capabilities that can be linked to enhanced performance by individuals or teams. Năng lực
Competency-based pay :Rewards individuals for the capabilities they demonstrate and acquire.
Lương dựa trên năng lực
Complaint: Indication of employee dissatisfaction. Than phiền
Compressed workweek: A workweek in which a full week’s work is accomplished in fewer than five 8-hour days. Tuần làm việc thu gọn
Conciliation: Process by which a third party assists union and management negotiators to reach a voluntary settlement. Hòa giải
Constructive discharge: Process of deliberately making conditions intolerable to get an employee to quit. Phương pháp thải hồi tự suy diễn

Contingent worker :Someone who is not an employee, but a temporary or part-time worker for a specific period of time and type of work. Nhân viên tạm thời
Contractual rights: Rights based on a specific contract between an employer and an employee.
Quyền có được theo hợp đồng
Contrast error: Tendency to rate people relative to others rather than against performance standards. Lỗi tương phản  
Contributory plan: Pension plan in which the money for pension benefits is paid by both employees and the employer. Kế hoạch đóng góp
Copayment: Strategy of requiring employees to pay a portion of the cost of insurance premiums, medical care, and prescription drugs. Đồng thanh toán
Core competency: A unique capability that creates high value and differentiates an organization from its competition. Năng lực cốt lõi
Correlation coefficient :Index number that gives the relationship between a predictor variable and a criterion variable. Hệ số tương quan
Cost-benefit analysis : Comparison of costs and benefits associated with training. Phân tích chi phí – lợi ích

Craft union: Union whose members do one type of work, often using specialized skills and training.
Hiệp hội nghề
Defined-benefit plan: Retirement program in which employees are promised a pension amount based on age and service. Kế hoạch xác định lợi ích  
Defined-contribution plan: Retirement program in which the employer makes an annual payment to an employee’s pension account. Kế hoạch xác định sự đóng góp
Development : Efforts to improve employees’ abilities to handle a variety of assignments and to cultivate employees’ capabilities beyond those required by the current job. Phát triển
Disabled person : Someone who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits life activities, who has a record of such an impairment, or who is regarded as having such an impairment.
Người khuyết tật
Discharge: When an employee is removed from a job at an employer. Sa thải
Discipline : Form of training that enforces organizational rules. Kỷ luật
Disparate impact :Occurs when members of a protected category are substantially underrepresented as a result of employment decisions that work to their disadvantage. Tác động khác nhau
Disparate treatment :Occurs when members of a group are treated differently from others.
Phân biệt đối xử
Distributive justice: Perceived fairness in the distribution of outcomes. Phân chia công bằng

Draw : Amount advanced against, and repaid from, future commissions earned by the employee.
Tạm ứng
Dual-career ladder : System that allows a person to advance up either a management or a technical/professional ladder.
Bậc nghề nghiệp kép
Due diligence : A comprehensive assessment of all aspects of the business being acquired.
Đánh giá với trách nhiệm cao nhất
Due process : Requirement that the employer use a fair process to determine employee wrongdoing and that the employee have an opportunity to explain and defend his or her actions. Tiến trình giải quyết tuân theo các thủ tục cần thiết
Duty : Work segment composed of several tasks that are performed by an individual. Nhiệm vụ
Effectiveness : The ability to produce a specific desired effect or result that can be measured.
Hiệu quả
Efficiency : The degree to which operations are done in an economical manner. Hiệu suất
Electronic human resource management systems (e-HRM): The planning, implementation, and application of information technology to perform HR activities.
Hệ thống quản lý tài nguyên điện tử của con người

Employee assistance program (EAP) : Program that provides counseling and other help to employees having emotional, physical, or other personal problems. Chương trình hỗ trợ nhân viên 
Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) : Plan designed to give employees significant stock ownership in their employers. Kế hoạch thực hiện quyền sở hữu cổ phần cho nhân viên
Employment-at-will : Common-law doctrine stating that employers have the right to hire, fire, demote, or promote whomever they choose, unless there is a law or contract to the contrary. Hợp đồng làm việc không ràng buộc
Employment contract : Formal agreement that outlines the details of employment.Hợp đồng lao động
Entitlement philosophy : Assumes that individuals who have worked another year are entitled to pay increases, with little regard for performance differences.Nguyên lý quyền được hưởng
Environmental scanning : The assessment of internal and external environmental conditions that affect the organization.Xác định môi trường xung quanh tổ chức
Equal employment : Employment that is not affected by illegal discrimination.Tuyển dụng công bằng

Equity : Perceived fairness between what a person does and what the person receives. Sự công bằng
Ergonomics : Study and design of the work environment to address physical demands placed on individuals. Nghiên cứu về lao động
Essential job functions : Fundamental job duties. Những nhiệm vụ cơ bản của công việc
Exempt employees : Employees who are not paid overtime. Nhân viên được miễn
Expatriate : A citizen of one country who is working in a second country and employed by an organization headquartered in the first country.Người nước ngoài
Federation : Group of autonomous unions.Liên bang
Feedback : Amount of information employees receive about how well or how poorly they have performed.Phản hồi
Flexible benefits plan : Program that allows employees to select the benefits they prefer from groups of benefits established by the employer.Kế hoạch phúc lợi linh hoạt
Flexible spending accounts : Benefits plans that allow employees to contribute pretax dollars to fund certain additional benefits.Tài khoản chi tiêu linh hoạt
Flextime : Scheduling arrangement in which employees work a set number of hours a day but vary starting and ending times.Lịch làm việc linh hoạt
Forced distribution : Performance appraisal method in which ratings of employees’ performance levels are distributed along a bell-shaped curve.Phân quyền bắt buộc
Forecasting : Using information from the past and the present to identify expected future conditions.
Dự báo
401(k) plan : Agreement in which a percentage of an employee’s pay is withheld and invested in a tax-deferred account. Kế hoạch 401(k)

Garnishment : A court order that directs an employer to set aside a portion of an employee’s wages to pay a debt owed a creditor.
Glass ceiling : Discriminatory practices that have prevented women and other protected-class members from advancing to executive-level jobs.
Global market approach : Compensation plan that attempts to be more comprehensive in providing base pay, incentives, benefits, and relocation expenses regardless of the country to which the employee is assigned.Tiếp cận thị trường quốc tế
Graphic rating scale : Scale that allows the rater to mark an employee’s performance on a continuum.Thang đo đánh giá
Green-circled employee : Incumbent who is paid below the range set for a job.
Phạm vi của người lao động chưa có kinh nghiệm
Grievance : Complaint formally stated in writing.Khiếu nại
Grievance arbitration: Means by which a third party settles disputes arising from different interpretations of a labor contract.Phân xử khiếu nại
Grievance procedures : Formal channels of communication used to resolve grievances.Thủ tục khiếu nại
Halo effect : Occurs when a rater scores an employee high on all job criteria because of performance in one area.Hiệu ứng năng lực / Hiệu ứng halo
Health : General state of physical, mental, and emotional well-being.Sức khỏe / y tế

Health promotion : Supportive approach of facilitating and encouraging healthy actions and lifestyles among employees.Nâng cao sức khỏe
Health reimbursement arrangement (HRA) : Health plan in which the employer sets aside money in a health reimbursement account to help employees pay for qualified medical expenses.Sắp xếp hoàn sức khỏe
Health savings accounts (HSAs) : High-deductible health plans with federal tax advantages.
Tài khoản tiết kiệm y tế
Host-country national : A citizen of one country who is working in that country and employed by an organization headquartered in a second country.Nước chủ nhà quốc gia
Hostile environment : Sexual harassment in which an individual’s work performance or psychological well-being is unreasonably affected by intimidating or offensive working conditions.
Môi trường làm việc không thân thiện

HR audit : A formal research effort to assess the current state of HR practices.Kiểm toán nhân sự
HR generalist : A person who has responsibility for performing a variety of HR activities.Giám đốc nhân sự
HR metrics : Specific measures tied to HR performance indicators.Chuẩn mực nguồn nhân lực
HR specialist : A person who has in-depth knowledge and expertise in a limited area of HR. Chuyên gia nhân sự
Human capital : The collective value of the capabilities, knowledge, skills, life experiences, and motivation of an organizational workforce. Nguồn nhân lực
Human capital return on investment (HCROI) : Directly shows the operating profit derived from investments in human capital. Nguồn nhân lực trong đầu tư
Human capital value added (HCVA) : Calculated by subtracting all operating expenses except for labor expenses from revenue and dividing by the total full-time head count. Giá trị nguồn nhân lực bổ sung
Human economic value added (HEVA) : Wealth created per employee. Giá trị kinh tế gia tăng theo nguồn nhân lực
Human resource (HR) management : Designing management systems to ensure that human talent is used effectively and efficiently to accomplish organizational goals. Quản trị nguồn nhân lực
Human resource planning : Process of analyzing and identifying the need for and availability of human resources so that the organization can meet its objectives. Quy hoạch nguồn nhân lực

Illegal issues : Collective bargaining issues that would require either party to take illegal action.
Những vấn đề bất hợp pháp
Immediate confirmation : Based on the idea that people learn best if reinforcement and feedback are given as soon as possible after training. Xác nhận tức thời
Individual-centered career planning : Career planning that focuses on an individual’s responsibility for a career rather than on organizational needs. Lập kế hoạch sự nghiệp cá nhân làm trung tâm
Industrial union : Union that includes many persons working in the same industry or company, regardless of jobs held. Đoàn công nghiệp
Informal training : Training that occurs through interactions and feedback among employees.
Đào tạo chính thức
Interactional justice : Perceived fairness about how a person interacts with others. Tương tác công bằng
Job : Grouping of tasks, duties, and responsibilities that constitute the total work assignment for an employee. Việc làm / công việc
Job analysis : Systematic way of gathering and analyzing information about the content, context, and human requirements of jobs. Phân tích công việc
Job description : Identification of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job. Mô tả công việc
Job design : Organizing tasks, duties, responsibilities, and other elements into a productive unit of work. Thiết kế công việc
Job duties : Important elements in a given job. Nhiệm vụ của công việc
Job enlargement : Broadening the scope of a job by expanding the number of different tasks to be performed. Khuyếch trương công việc 
Job enrichment : Increasing the depth of a job by adding responsibility for planning, organizing, controlling, or evaluating the job. Làm phong phú thêm công việc
Job evaluation : Formal, systematic means to identify the relative worth of jobs within an organization. Định giá / đánh giá công việc
Job family : Group of jobs having common organizational characteristics. Họ công việc
Job posting : System in which the employer provides notices of job openings and employees respond by applying for specific openings. Đăng tuyển dụng

Job rotation : Process of shifting a person from job to job. Sự luân chuyển công tác
Job satisfaction : A positive emotional state resulting from evaluating one’s job experiences.
Sự thỏa mãn trong công việc
Job sharing : Scheduling arrangement in which two employees perform the work of one full-time job. Chia sẻ công việc
Job specifications : The knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) an individual needs to perform a job satisfactorily. Chi tiết công việc
Just cause : Reasonable justification for taking employment-related action. Lý do chính đáng
Knowledge management : The way an organization identifies and leverages knowledge in order to be competitive. Quản trị tri thức
Labor force population : All individuals who are available for selection if all possible recruitment strategies are used. Dân số lực lượng lao động
Labor markets : External supply pool from which organizations attract employees. Thị trường lao động
Leniency error : Occurs when ratings of all employees fall at the high end of the scale. Lỗi dễ dãi (khoan dung)
Living wage : Earnings that are supposed to meet the basic needs of an individual working for an organization. Mức lương vừa đủ sống
Lockout: Shutdown of company operations undertaken by management to prevent union members from working. Đóng cửa
Lump-sum increase (LSI) : One-time payment of all or part of a yearly pay increase. Gia tăng gộp

Managed care : Approaches that monitor and reduce medical costs through restrictions and market system alternatives. Y tế quản lý
Management by objectives (MBO) : Performance appraisal method that specifies the performance goals that an individual and manager identify together. Quản trị theo mục tiêu
Management mentoring : Relationship in which experienced managers aid individuals in the earlier stages of their careers. Quản lý tư vấn
Management rights : Rights reserved so that the employer can manage, direct, and control its business. Quyền quản trị
Mandatory issues: Collective bargaining issues identified specifically by labor laws or court decisions as subject to bargaining. Các vấn đề bắt buộc
Marginal job functions : Duties that are part of a job but are incidental or ancillary to the purpose and nature of the job. Chức năng công việc biên
Market banding : Grouping jobs into pay grades based on similar market survey amounts. Dải thị trường
Market line : Graph line that shows the relationship between job value as determined by job evaluation points and job value as determined by pay survey rates. Đường thị trường
Market pricing : Use of market pay data to identify the relative value of jobs based on what other employers pay for similar jobs. Định giá thị trường
Massed practice: Practice performed all at once. Thực thi hàng loạt
Mediation : Process by which a third party helps the negotiators reache a settlement. Sự điều đình
Motivation : The desire within a person causing that person to act. Động lực
Multinational corporation (MNC) : A corporation that has facilities and other assets in at least one country other than its home country. Công ty đa quốc gia
Negligent hiring: Occurs when an employer fails to check an employee’s background and the employee injures someone on the job. Sự tuyển dụng thiếu cẩn trọng

Negligent retention : Occurs when an employer becomes aware that an employee may be unfit for work but continues to employ the person, and the person injures someone. Duy trì cẩu thả
Nepotism : Practice of allowing relatives to work for the same employer. Gia đình trị
Noncompete agreements : Agreements that prohibit individuals who leave an organization from working with an employer in the same line of business for a specified period of time. Hiệp định không cạnh tranh
Noncontributory plan: Pension plan in which all the funds for pension benefits are provided by the employer. Kế hoạch không đóng góp
Nondirective interview: Interview that uses questions developed from the answers to previous questions. Phỏng vấn không định hướng
Nonexempt employees : Employees who must be paid overtime. Nhân viên MIỄN TRỪ
Offshoring : The relocation by a company of a business process or operation from one country to another. Chuyển kinh doanh / công ty ra nước ngoài
Ombuds : Individuals outside the normal chain of command who act as problem solvers for both management and employees. Thanh tra viên
“Open-door” policy : A policy in which anyone with a complaint can talk with a manager, an HR representative, or an executive. Chính sách mở cửa
Open shop : Firm in which workers are not required to join or pay dues to a union. Hãng loại mở

Organizational commitment : The degree to which employees believe in and accept organizational goals and desire to remain with the organization. Cam kết của tổ chức
Organizational culture: The shared values and beliefs in an organization. Văn hóa tổ chức
Organizational mission : The core reason for the existence of the organization and what makes it unique. Sứ mệnh của tổ chức
Organization-centered career planning : Career planning that focuses on identifying career paths that provide for the logical progression of people between jobs in an organization. Kế hoạch nghề nghiệp tổ chức làm trung tâm
Orientation : Planned introduction of new employees to their jobs, coworkers, and the organization.
Định hướng công việc
Outsourcing : Transferring the management and performance of a business function to an external service provider. Việc thuê ngoài
Paid-time-off (PTO) plan : Plan that combines all sick leave, vacation time, and holidays into a total number of hours or days that employees can take off with pay. Nghỉ được hưởng lương

Panel interview : Interview in which several interviewers meet with candidate at the same time. 
Phỏng vấn hội đồng
Pay compression : Occurs when the pay differences among individuals with different levels of experience and performance become small. Sức ép lương bổng
Pay equity : The concept that the pay for all jobs requiring comparable knowledge, skills, and abilities should be the same even if actual job duties and market rates differ significantly. 
Chi trả công bằng
Pay grades: Groupings of individual jobs having approximately the same job worth. Mức chi trả
Pay survey : Collection of data on compensation rates for workers performing similar jobs in other organizations. Khảo sát lương
Pay-for-performance philosophy : Requires that compensation changes reflect performance differences. Tiêu chí trả công theo thành tích
Pension plan : Retirement program established and funded by the employer and employees. Kế hoạch hưu trí
Performance appraisal : Process of determining how well employees do their jobs relative to a standard and communicating that information to them. Đánh giá hiệu quả
Performance consulting : Process in which a trainer and an organization work together to decide how to improve organizational and individual results. Tư vấn hiệu suất làm việc
Performance management :Series of activities designed to ensure that the organization gets the performance it needs from its employees. Quản lý hiệu quả 
Performance standards :Indicators of what the job accomplishes and how performance is measured in key areas of the job description. Tiêu chuẩn hiệu suất

Permissive issues : Collective bargaining issues that are not mandatory and that relate to certain jobs. Các vấn đề không bắt buộc
Perquisites (perks) : Special benefits, usually noncash items, for executives. Bổng lộc (đặc quyền)
Person/job fit: Matching the KSAs of individuals with the characteristics of jobs. Việc/ người phù hợp
Person/organization fit : The congruence between individuals and organizational factors. Người/tổ chức phù hợp
Phased retirement : Approach in which employees gradually reduce their workloads and pay levels.
Nghỉ hưu theo từng giai đoạn
Physical ability tests : Tests that measure an individual’s abilities such as strength, endurance, and muscular movement. Kiểm tra sức khỏe
Placement : Fitting a person to the right job. Bố trí việc làm
Policies : General guidelines that focus organizational actions. Chính sách
Portability : A pension plan feature that allows employees to move their pension benefits from one employer to another. Tính di động
Predictive validity : Measured when test results of applicants are compared with subsequent job performance. Giá trị dự đoán
Predictors of selection criteria : Measurable or visible indicators of selection criteria. Dự đoán của lựa chọn tiêu chuẩn

Preferred provider organization (PPO) : A health care provider that contracts with an employer or an employer group to supply health care services to employees at a competitive rate. Tổ chức cung cấp dịch vụ ưu tiên
Primacy effect : Occurs when a rater gives greater weight to information received first when appraising an individual’s performance. Hiệu quả ưu việt
Procedural justice : Perceived fairness of the processes used to make decisions about employees.
Đánh giá công bằng
Procedures : Customary methods of handling activities. Quy trình
Productivity : Measure of the quantity and quality of work done, considering the cost of the resources used. Năng suất
Profit sharing : System to distribute a portion of the profits of an organization to employees. 
Chia sẻ lợi nhuận
Protected category: A group identified for protection under EEO laws and regulations. Bảo vệ thương hiệu
Psychological contract : The unwritten expectations employees and employers have about the nature of their work relationships. Hợp đồng tâm lý
Psychomotor tests : Tests that measure dexterity, hand—eye coordination, arm—hand steadiness, and other factors. Kiểm tra tâm lý

Quid pro quo : Sexual harassment in which employment outcomes are linked to the individual granting sexual favors. Điều kiện trao đổi
Ranking : Performance appraisal method in which all employees are listed from highest to lowest in performance. Xếp loại
Rater bias : Occurs when a rater’s values or prejudices distort the rating. Thành kiến
Ratification : Process by which union members vote to accept the terms of a negotiated labor agreement. Phê duyệt
Realistic job preview : Process through which a job applicant receives an accurate picture of a job.
Thực tế xem trước công việc
Reasonable accommodation : A modification to a job or work environment that gives a qualified individual an equal employment opportunity to perform. Điều kiện chỗ ở hợp lý
Recency effect : Occurs when a rater gives greater weight to recent events when appraising an individual’s performance. Ảnh hưởng gần đây
Recruiting : Process of generating a pool of qualified applicants for organizational jobs. Tuyển dụng
Red-circled employee: Incumbent who is paid above the range set for a job. Nhân viên được lựa chọn
Reinforcement : Based on the idea that people tend to repeat responses that give them some type of positive reward and avoid actions associated with negative consequences. Sự củng cố
Repatriation : Planning, training, and reassignment of global employees to their home countries.
Hồi hương

Responsibilities : Obligations to perform certain tasks and duties. Trách nhiệm
Retaliation: Punitive actions taken by employers against individuals who exercise their legal rights. 
Trả thù
Return on investment (ROI): Calculation showing the value of an investment. Hoàn vốn đầu tư
Right to privacy : An individual’s freedom from unauthorized and unreasonable intrusion into personal affairs. Quyền cá nhân
Rights : Powers, privileges, or interests that belong to a person by law, nature, or tradition. Quyền / quyền lợi
Right-to-work laws : State laws that prohibit requiring employees to join unions as a condition of obtaining or continuing employment. Luật về quyền lao động
Risk management : Involves responsibilities to consider physical, human, and financial factors to protect organizational and individual interests. Quản lý rủi ro
Rules : Specific guidelines that regulate and restrict the behavior of individuals. Các quy tắc
Sabbatical : Time off the job to develop and rejuvenate oneself. Nghỉ phép
Safety : Condition in which the physical well-being of people is protected. An toàn
Salaries: Consistent payments made each period regardless of the number of hours worked. Lương
Salting: Practice in which unions hire and pay people to apply for jobs at certain companies to begin organizing efforts. Tính đậm đà
Security: Protection of employees and organizational facilities. An ninh
Security audit: Comprehensive review of organizational security. Kiểm định an toàn

Selection : The process of choosing individuals with the correct qualifications needed to fill jobs in an organization. Lựa chọn
Selection criterion : Characteristic that a person must possess to successfully perform work.
Những tiêu chuẩn lựa chọn
Selection rate :Percentage hired from a given group of candidates. Tỷ lệ được lựa chọn
Self-directed team : Organizational team composed of individuals who are assigned a cluster of tasks, duties, and responsibilities to be accomplished. Nhóm định hướng
Self-efficacy : People’s belief that they can successfully learn the training program content. Tự tin
Seniority : Time spent in an organization or on a particular job. Thâm niên
Separation agreement :Agreement in which a terminated employee agrees not to sue the employer in exchange for specified benefits. Thỏa thuận riêng
Serious health condition : Health condition requiring in-patient, hospital, hospice, or residential medical care or continuing physician care. Tình trạng sức khỏe kém
Severance benefits : Temporary payments made to laid-off employees to ease the financial burden of unemployment. Trợ cấp thôi việc
Severance pay : Security benefit voluntarily offered by employers to individuals whose jobs are eliminated or who leave by mutual agreement with their employers. Tiền thôi việc
Sexual harassment: Actions that are sexually directed, are unwanted, and subject the worker to adverse employment conditions or create a hostile work environment. Quấy rối tình dục
Situational interview : Structured interview that contains questions about how applicants might handle specific job situations. Phỏng vấn tình huống

Situational judgment tests : Tests that measure a person’s judgment in work settings.
Bài kiểm tra đánh giá nhân công tại chỗ
Skill variety : Extent to which the work requires several different activities for successful completion. Đa dạng về kỹ năng
Spaced practice : Practice performed in several sessions spaced over a period of hours or days. 
Thực hành cách quãng
Special-purpose team : Organizational team formed to address specific problems, improve work processes, and enhance the overall quality of products and services. Nhóm chuyên gia đặc biệt
Statutory rights : Rights based on laws or statutes passed by federal, state, or local governments.
Quyền pháp định
Stock option plan : Plan that gives employees the right to purchase a fixed number of shares of company stock at a specified price for a limited period of time. Kế hoạch nhận mua cổ phiếu
Stock purchase plan : Plan in which the employer provides matching funds equal to the amount invested by the employee for the purchase of stock in the company. Kế hoạch mua bán chứng khoán
Straight piece-rate system: Pay system in which wages are determined by multiplying the number of units produced by the piece rate for one unit. Hệ thống khoán sản phẩm

Strategic HR management : Use of employees to gain or keep a competitive advantage. Quản trị chiến lược nhân sự
Strategic planning : The process of defining organizational strategy and allocating resources toward its achievement. Hoạch định chiến lược
Strategy : An organization’s proposition for how to compete successfully and thereby survive and grow. Chiến lược
Stress interview : Interview designed to create anxiety and put pressure on applicants to see how they respond. Phỏng vấn ở tình trạng căng thẳng
Strictness error : Occurs when ratings of all employees fall at the low end of the scale. Lỗi giới hạn
Strike: Work stoppage in which union members refuse to work in order to put pressure on an employer. Đình công
Structured interview : Interview that uses a set of standardized questions asked of all applicants.
Phỏng vấn cấu trúc
Substance abuse : Use of illicit substances or misuse of controlled substances, alcohol, or other drugs. Sử dụng chất cấm
Succession planning : The process of identifying a plan for the orderly replacement of key employees. Hoạch định kế nhiệm
Sustainabilty : Being able to continue to operate, survive, and adjust to significant changes. Tính bền vững

Task : Distinct, identifiable work activity composed of motions. Nhiệm vụ
Task identity : Extent to which the job includes a “whole” identifiable unit of work that is carried out from start to finish and that results in a visible outcome. Sự xác định nhiệm vụ
Task significance : Impact the job has on other people. Tầm quan trọng của nhiệm vụ
Tax equalization plan : Compensation plan used to protect expatriates from negative tax consequences. Kế hoạch bình quân thuế
Team interview : Interview in which applicants are interviewed by the team members with whom they will work. Phỏng vấn nhóm
Telework : Employees work with technology via electronic, telecommunications, and Internet means. Làm việc từ xa
Third-country national : A citizen of one country who is working in a second country and employed by an organization headquartered in a third country. Công dân nước thứ ba
Total rewards : Monetary and nonmonetary rewards provided by companies to attract, motivate, and retain employees. Phần thưởng
Training : Process whereby people acquire capabilities to perform jobs. Đào tạo
Turnover: The process in which employees leave an organization and have to be replaced. 
Quy trình thay thế nhân công

Undue hardship : Significant difficulty or expense imposed on an employer in making an accommodation for individuals with disabilities. Hoàn cảnh khó khăn
Union : Formal association of workers that promotes the interests of its members through collective action. Công đoàn
Union authorization card : Card signed by employees to designate a union as their collective bargaining agent. Thẻ ủy quyền công đoàn
Union security provisions : Contract clauses to help the union obtain and retain members.
Điều khoản bảo vệ của công đoàn
Union steward : Employee elected to serve as the first-line representative of unionized workers.
Nhân viên quản lý công đoàn
Unit labor cost : Computed by dividing the average cost of workers by their average levels of output. Phí tồn công nhân đơn vị
Utilization analysis : Identifies the number of protected-class members employed in the organization and the types of jobs they hold. Phân tích sử dụng nhân sự
Utilization review : Audit of services and costs billed by health care providers. Đánh giá dịch vụ y tế

Variable pay : Compensation linked to individual, group/team, and/or organizational performance.
Chất lượng khả biến / biến đổi
Vesting : Right of employees to receive certain benefits from their pension plans. Sự đạt được quyền bảo hiểm
Virtual team : Organizational team composed of individuals who are separated geographically but linked by communications technology. Nhóm làm việc ảo
Wages : Payments calculated directly from the amount of time worked by employees. Lương
Well pay : Extra pay for not taking sick leave. Tiền nghỉ ốm
Wellness programs : Programs designed to maintain or improve employee health before problems arise. Chương trình cải thiện sức khỏe nhân viên
Whistle blowers : Individuals who report real or perceived wrongs committed by their employers.
Nhân viên kiểm soát
Work : Effort directed toward accomplishing results. Công việc
Work flow analysis : Study of the way work (inputs, activities, and outputs) moves through an organization. Phân tích quy trình làm việc
Work sample tests : Tests that require an applicant to perform a simulated task that is a specified part of the target job. Bài kiểm tra mẫu công tác
Workers’ compensation : Security benefits provided to persons injured on the job. Tiền bồi thường cho người lao động. Chênh lệch suất thu nhập
Wrongful discharge : Termination of an individual’s employment for reasons that are illegal or improper. Việc sa thải phi lý

End of Glossary

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