Strategic Management - Glossary


Key word
Definition
Vietnamese
Added value
The difference between the market value of the output and the cost of the inputs to the organisation.

Giá trị gia tăng
Architecture
The network of relationships and contracts both within and around the organisation.

Cấu trúc tổ chức doanh nghiệp
Attractiveness to stakeholders
Strategy evaluation criterion associated with the strategy being sufficiently appealing to those people that the company needs to satisfy

Tính hấp dẫn đối với các bên hữu quan
Backward integration
The process whereby an organisation acquires the activities of its inputs
Sáp nhập lùi /việc công ty thực hiện các việc cung ứng của mình
Balanced scorecard
This uses strategic and financial measures to assess the outcome of a chosen strategy
Thẻ điểm cân bằng
Benchmarking
The comparison of practice in other organisations in order to identify areas for improvement.

Phép đối chuẩn/So sánh tình hình hoạt động giữa các tổ chức khác nhau nhưng hoạt động trong lĩnh vực tương tự nhau để xác định khu vực cần cải thiện
Bounded rationality
The principle that managers reduce tasks, including implementation, to a series of small steps, even though this may grossly oversimplify the situation and may not be the optimal way to proceed.

Lý thuyết lý tính bị rào
Brainstorming
The rapid generation of ideas by a group, often from a wide variety of backgrounds, without any evaluation of those ideas.

Động não
Branding
The additional reassurance provided to the customer by the brand name and reputation beyond the intrinsic value of the assets purchased by the customer.

Xây dựng thương hiệu
Break-even
The point at which the total costs of undertaking a new strategy are equal to the total revenue from the strategy
Hòa vốn
Bretton Woods Agreement
System of largely fixed currency exchange rates between the leading industrialised nations of the world

Hiệp ước the Bretton Woods
Business ethics
See Ethics
Đạo đức kinh doanh
Business model
A formula that summarises the essential elements of strategy that will deliver the company’s profits in a particular strategic context.

Mô hình kinh doanh
Business process re-engineering
The replacement of people in administrative tasks by technology, often accompanied by delayering and other organisational change

Tái cấu trúc quy trình doanh nghiệp
Capability-based resources
Covers the resources across the entire value chain and goes beyond key resources and core competencies
Nguồn lực dựa vào năng lực
Capacity utilisation
The level of plant operation at any time, usually expressed as a percentage of total production capacity of that plant.

Chỉ số sản xuất công nghiệp
Cash cows
Products with high relative market shares in low-growth markets

Cash cows là loại công ty có khả năng tạo tiền lớn cùng lợi nhuận biên cao, tuy nhiên, vị thế trong ngành (market share) là không lớn (hoặc tương lai sụt giảm). Loại này (products) trong công ty dùng để “bơm” tiền cho các hoạt động khác, đảm bảo cho sự phát triển trong tương lai (Trong mô hình BCG)
Change options matrix
This links the areas of human resource activity with the three main areas of strategic change: work, cultural and political change.

Ma trận lựa chọn các thay đổi
Changeability of the environment
The degree to which the environment is likely to change.
Khả năng thay đổi của môi trường
Channel strategy

Chiến lược kênh phân phối
Close-related diversification
Different companies within a group may have different products or services but have some form of close affinity such as common customers, common suppliers or common overheads.

Các công ty khác nhau trong một nhóm có thể có những sản phẩm hoặc dịch vụ khác nhau nhưng có thể có chung khách hàng, nhà phân phối hoặc chi phí.
Collusive alliances
Cooperative strategies in which firms seek to share information in order to reduce competition or raise prices

Liên minh
Comparative advantage of nations
This consists of the resources possessed by a country that give it a competitive advantage over other nations

Lợi thế cạnh tranh quốc gia.
Competitive advantage
The significant advantages that an organisation has over its competitors

Lợi thế cạnh tranh
Competitor profiling
Explores one or two leading competitors by analysing their resources, past performance, current products and strategies

Đánh giá đối thủ cạnh tranh
Complementors
The companies whose products add more value to the products of the base organisation than they would derive from their own products by themselves

Sản phẩm bổ sung/hỗ trợ
Complete competitive formula
The business formula that offers both value for money to customers and competitive advantage against competitors.

Công thức cạnh tranh toàn diện
Concentration ratio
The degree to which value added or turnover is concentrated in the hands of a few firms in an industry.

Tỷ lệ tập trung hóa
Consistency
Strategy evaluation criterion associated with the strategy being in agreement with the objectives of the organisation.

Tính thống nhất
Contend
The constructive conflict that some strategists argue is needed by every organisation

Sự tranh luận
Content of strategic management
The main actions of the proposed strategy.

Những phần chính của quản trị chiến lược.
Context of strategic management
The circumstances surrounding and influencing the way that a strategy develops and operates.

Bối cảnh của quản trị chiến lược
Contingency theory of leadership
Argues that leaders should be promoted or recruited according to the needs of the organisation at a particular point in time.

Lý thuyết ứng phó với tình huống bất ngờ
Controls
Employed to ensure that strategic objectives are achieved and financial, human resource and other guidelines are not breached during the implementation process or the ongoing phase of strategic activity

Kiểm tra/Kiểm soát
Co-operation
The links that bring organisations together, thereby enhancing their ability to compete in the market place

Sự hợp tác
Co-operative game
Has positive payoff for all participants
Lý thuyết trò chơi hợp tác
Co-operative strategy
A strategy in which at least two companies work together with rivals or other related companies to achieve an agreed objective or to their mutual benefit.

Chiến lược hợp tác/ Giữa ít nhất 2 cty để đạt được mục tiêu và lợi ích chung
Core areas of strategic management
Strategic analysis, strategy development and strategy implementation from a prescriptive perspective only

Những phần cốt lõi của quản trị chiến lược
Core competencies
The distinctive group of skills and technologies that enable an organisation to provide particular benefits to customers and deliver competitive advantage

Năng lực cốt  lõi
Core resources and capabilities
The important strategic resources of the organisation, usually summarised as tangible and intangible resources of the organisation coupled with the organisational capabilities that deploy and share these resources

Tài nguyên và tiềm năng cốt lõi
Corporate governance
The influence and power of the stakeholders to control the strategic direction of the organisation in general and, more specifically, the chief executive and other senior officers of the organisation.

Quản trị công ty đại chúng
Corporate-level strategy
has two meanings in the literature. First, corporate-level strategy means the strategic decisions that lead companies to diversify from one business into other business areas, either related or unrelated. Second, corporate-level strategy means the role of the corporate headquarters in directing and influencing strategy across a multiproduct group of
companies.
Chiến lược cấp công ty
Corporate purpose
The purpose and contribution of the central headquarters of a diversified group of companies.
Mục tiêu của tổ chức
Corporate social responsibility
The standards and the conduct that an organisation sets itself in its dealings within an organisation and outside with its environment

Trách nhiệm xã hội của doanh nghiệp.
Cost/benefit analysis
Evaluates strategic projects, especially in the public sector, where an element of un-quantified public service beyond commercial profit may be involved.

Phân tích chi phí/Lợi nhuận
Cost of capital
The cost of the capital employed in an organisation, often measured by the cost of investing in a risk-free bond outside the organisation coupled with some element for the extra risks, if any, of investing in the organisation itself

Chi phí vốn
Cost-plus pricing
Sets the price of goods and services primarily by totalling the costs and adding a percentage profit margin

Định giá cộng thêm vào chi phí
Creative destruction theory
Based on the concept that innovative opportunities arise through competition and technology destroying previous market offerings

Lý thuyết sự hủy diệt tích cực
Creative theory
Based on the hypothesis that new opportunities can be developed by entrepreneurs experimenting and creating a new market demand that did not previously exist

Lý thuyết sáng tạo/ Dựa trên thử nghiệm của doanh nghiệp tạo ra một nhu cầu thị trường mới.
Cultural web
The factors that can be used to characterise some aspects of the culture of an organisation.
Mạng văn hóa.
Culture
It is important to distinguish between these two quite distinct areas of the subject.

Văn hóa
Customer–competitor matrix
Links together the extent to which customers have common needs and competitors can gain competitive advantage through areas such as differentiation and economies of scale.

Ma trận khách hàng – đối thủ cạnh tranh
Customer-driven strategy
The strategy of an organisation where every function is directed towards customer satisfaction. It goes beyond those functions, such as sales and marketing that have traditionally had direct contact with the customer.

Chiến lược định hướng khách hàng.
Customer profiling
Describes the main characteristics of the customer and how customers make their purchase decisions.

Hồ sơ khách hàng
Cyclicality
The periodic rise and fall of a mature market.

Chu kì
Delayering
The removal of layers of management and administration in an organisation’s structure.

Tinh giản bộ máy/Loại bỏ các cấp quản lý và điều hành trong cấu trúc một tổ chức.
Demerger
The split of an organisation into its constituent parts, with some parts possibly being sold to outside investors.

Tái thiết
Derived demand
Demand for goods and services that is derived from the economic performance of the customers.

Cầu phái sinh, cầu dẫn xuất/ Cầu đối với một yếu tố sản xuất.
Diamond theory of international competitive advantage
Identifies a ‘diamond’ of four interrelated areas within a nation which assist that country to be more competitive in international markets – the four areas being factor conditions, competing firms within the country, support industries of the country and home demand.

Lý thuyết “Diamond” trong lợi thế cạnh tranh toàn cầu
Differentiation
The development of unique benefits or attributes in a product or service that positions it to appeal especially to a part (segment) of the total market

Chuyên biệt hóa sản phẩm
Dirigiste policy
Describes the policies of a government relying on an approach of centrally directed government actions to manage the economy.

Chính sách Chính phủ can thiệp
Discontinuity
Radical, sudden and largely unpredicted change in the environment

Sự gián đoạn, thay đổi đột ngột không thể đoán trước trong môi trường
Discovery theory
Based on the premise that new opportunities already exist in the market place and are waiting to be discovered by entrepreneurs.

Dựa trên tiền đề các cơ hội mới đã tồn tại trong thị trường và cần được doanh nghiệp khám phá
Discounted cash flow (DCF)
The sum of the projected cash flows from a future strategy, after revaluing each individual element of the cash flow in terms of its present worth using the cost of capital of the organisation.

Dòng tiền chiết khấu
Disruptive innovation
This takes an existing market and identifies existing technologies that will offer simpler, less expensive products or services than have been offered previously
Siêu đổi mới
Distant-related diversification
Although the different companies in the group will have quite different products or services, possibly using wholly different technologies, they will share the same underpinning core competencies or some other area of technology or service that would benefit from coordination by a central headquarters.
Mặc dù các công ty khác nhau trong nhóm sẽ có những sản phẩm hoặc dịch vụ hoàn toàn khác nhau, có thể sử dụng công nghệ hoàn toàn khác biệt, nhưng họ sẽ chia sẻ năng lực nền tảng cốt lõi đó hoặc một số công nghệ, dịch vụ ở khu vực khác để được lợi từ sự phối hợp với một trụ sở trung ương.
Distribution or channel strategy
The strategies involved in delivering the product or service to the customer.
Kênh phân phối
Diversification strategy
This occurs when an organisation moves away from a single product or dominant business area into other business areas, which may or may not be related to the original business.
Chiến lược đa dạng hóa
Diversified portfolio of products
Companies that have a range of products serving many customers in different markets.
Đa dạng hóa sản phẩm
Division
A separate part of a multiproduct company with profit responsibility for its range of products.
Phân công
Dogs
Products with low relative market shares in low-growth markets.
Sản phẩm tiêu thụ chậm, khó bán, thị phần thấp, cần có chiến lược từ bỏ đầu tư và chuyển sang lĩnh vực đầu tư mới
Dominant logic
The way in which managers conceptualise the business and make critical resource allocation decisions.
Logic chiến lược ưu thế
Double-loop learning
Consists of a first loop of learning that checks performance against expected norms and adjusts where necessary, coupled with a second loop that reappraises whether the expected norms were appropriate in the first place.
Học tập vòng lập kép
Economic rent
Any excess that a factor earns over the minimum amount needed to keep that factor in its present use
Tô kinh tế
Economies of scale
The extra cost savings that occur when higher-volume production allows unit costs to be reduced.
Kinh tế quy mô hay kinh tế bậc thang
Economies of scope
The cost savings developed by a group when it shares activities or transfers capabilities and competencies from one part of the group to another
Tính kinh tế theo phạm vi
Emergent change
The whole process of developing a strategy whose outcome only emerges as the strategy proceeds.
Thay đổi chiến lược phát sinh
Emergent strategic management
A strategy whose final objective is unclear and whose elements are developed during the course of its life, as it proceeds
Quản lý chiến lược phát sinh
Empowerment
The devolution of power and decision making responsibility to those lower in the organization
Sự trao quyền
Entrepreneurship
A way of thinking, reasoning and acting that focuses on the identification and exploitation of business opportunities from a broad general perspective typically driven by the leadership of individuals or small groups.
Tư duy làm chủ doanh nghiệp
Environment
Everything and everyone outside the organisation: competitors, customers, government
Môi trường
Ethics
The principles that encompass the standards and conduct that an organisation sets itself in its dealings within the organisation and with its external environment.
Nguyên tắc , quy chế của tổ chức
Expansion method matrix
Explores in a structured way the methods by which the market opportunities associated with strategy options might be achieved.
Phương pháp mở rộng ma trận
Experience curve
The relationship between the unit costs of a product and the total units ever produced of that product, plotted in graphical form, with the units being cumulative from the first day of production.
Đường cong kinh nghiệm
Experiential learning circle
This has four elements: 1. concrete experience or knowledge; 2. observation and reflection; 3. formation of abstract concepts from the observation; 4. testing of such concepts in new situations.
Vòng học tập thông qua trải nghiệm: Có bốn yếu tố: 1. cụ thể kinh nghiệm hay kiến ​​thức; 2. quan sát và phản ánh, 3. hình thành các khái niệm trừu tượng từ quan sát, 4. thử nghiệm các khái niệm trong những tình huống mới.
Feasibility
Strategy evaluation criterion associated with the strategy being capable of being implemented
Tính khả thi
Fit
The consistencies, coherence and congruence of the organisation
Tính thống nhất,phù hợp
Floating and fixed exchange rates
Currency exchange rates, such as the rate of exchange between the US dollar and the Yen, are said to float when market forces determine the rate, depending on market demand.
Tỷ giá thả nổi và cố định
Focus group
A research discussion of around five to eight people, selected for their relevance to the subject.
Khảo sát nhóm tập trung
Focus strategy
Occurs when the organisation focuses on a specific niche (or segment) of the market place and develops competitive advantage by offering products especially developed for that niche (or segment).
Chiến lược tập trung
Foreign trade
The exporting and importing activities of countries and companies around the world.
Ngoại thương
Foreign direct investment (FDI)
The long-term investment by a company in technology, management skills, brands and physical assets of a subsidiary in another country
Đầu tư trực tiếp nước ngoài
Formal organisation structures
Those structures formally defined by the organisation in terms of reporting relationships, responsibilities and tasks
Cơ cấu tổ chức chính thức
Forward integration
The process whereby an organisation acquires the activities of its outputs
Sáp nhập tiến/Việc công ty mua lại công ty khách hàng của mình
Franchise
A form of cooperative strategy in which a firm (the franchisor) develops a business concept and then offers this to others (the franchisees) in the form of a contractual relationship to use the business concept
Nhượng quyền kinh doanh
Functional organisation structure
Structure based around the main activities that have to be undertaken by the organisation
Cơ cấu chức năng
Game-based theories of strategy
These focus on the decisions of the organisation and its competitors as strategy is developed – the game – and the interactions between the two as strategic decisions are taken.
Chiến lược dựa vào lý thuyết trò chơi
Game theory
Structured methods of bargaining with and between customers, suppliers and others, both inside and outside the organisation
Lý thuyết trò chơi
Gearing ratio
The ratio of debt finance to the total shareholders’ funds
Tỷ suất nợ trên vốn
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
International agreement between various countries around the world, designed to deal with trade disputes and support world trade.
GATT - Hiệp định chung về thuế quan và thương mại
Generic industry environment
The study of those strategies that are particularly likely to cope with a particular market or competitive environment
Môi trường ngành phổ quát
Generic strategies
The three basic strategies of cost leadership, differentiation and focus (sometimes called niche) which are open to any business
Chiến lược cạnh tranh phổ quát
Global and national responsiveness matrix
This links together the extent of the need for global activity with the need for an organisation to be responsive to national and regional variations
Ma trận đáp ứng toàn cầu và quốc gia
Global product company
This will often involve the global integration of manufacturing and one common global brand.
Sản phẩm toàn cầu
Global strategy
When a company treats the whole world as one market and one source of supply.
Chiến lược toàn cầu
Green strategy
concerns those activities of the organisation that are focused on both sustaining the earth’s environment and developing the business opportunities that will arise from such additional activities.
Chiến lược xanh
Green strategy value chain
seeks out ways of reducing energy, lowering carbon content and adopting recycling policies, not only within the organisation but also with suppliers and customers.
Chuỗi giá trị tạo ra từ chiến lược xanh/ tìm ra cách giảm năng lượng, làm giảm hàm lượng carbon và áp dụng các chính sách tái chế, không chỉ trong tổ chức mà còn với các nhà cung cấp và khách hàng.
Growth-share matrix

Ma trận quan hệ tăng trưởng và thị phần
Hierarchy of resources
The four levels of resources that are the full resources of the organisation.
Hệ thống các nguồn lực
Historical strategy perspective
According to this approach, the purpose of an organisation and its outcomes must, at least in part, be seen as being influenced by the organisation’s present resources, its past history and its evolution over time
Chiến lược dựa vào kết quả quá khứ
Holding company organisation structure
Used for organisations with very diverse product ranges and share relationships where a central (holding) company owns various businesses and acts as an investment company with shareholdings in each of the individual enterprises
Cơ cấu tổ chức công ty cổ phần
Horizontal integration
When an organisation moves to acquire its competitors or make some other form of close association
Chiến lược theo chiều ngang
Human resource audit
An examination of the organisation’s leadership, its people and their skills, backgrounds and relationships with each other.
Đánh giá nguồn nhân lực
Human resource-based theories of strategy
These emphasise the importance of the people element in strategy development.
Lý thuyết chiến lược dựa vào nguồn nhân lực
Implementation
The process by which the organisation’s chosen strategies is put into operation.
Thực thi chiến lược
Informal organisation structures
Those structures, often unwritten, that have been developed by the history, culture and individuals in an organisation to facilitate the flow of information and allocate power within the structure.
Cấu trúc tổ chức không chính quy
Innovation
The generation and exploitation of new ideas
Sự đổi mới
Innovation and knowledge-based theories
of strategy privilege the generation of new ideas and the sharing of those ideas as being the most important aspects of strategy development
Sự đổi mới và lý thuyết quản trị kiến thức
Innovation organisation structure
Characterised by creativity, lack of formal reporting relationships and informality.
Đổi mới cơ cấu tổ chức
Innovative capability
The special talent possessed by some organisations for developing and exploiting innovative ideas.
Khả năng sáng tạo
Intangible resources
The organisation’s resources that have no physical presence but represent real benefit to the organisation, like reputation and technical knowledge.
Tài nguyên vô hình
Intellectual capital of an organisation
The future earnings capacity that derives from a deeper, broader and more human perspective than that described in the organisation’s financial reports.
Vốn trí tuệ của tổ chức
Intellectual property
Any product of human intellect that is intangible but has value in the market place – often has a legal meaning for companies
Sở hữu trí tuệ
International culture
Collective programming of the mind that distinguishes one human group from another.
Văn hóa quốc tế
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
International body designed to lend funds to countries in international difficulty and to promote trade stability through cooperation and discussion
Quỹ tiền tệ quốc tế
International strategy
When a significant proportion of an organisation’s activities are outside the home country and are managed as a separate area.
Chiến lược quốc tế
Intrapreneurship
Focuses on the identification and exploitation of creative and innovative opportunities within larger companies or organisations.
Người có khả năng lãnh đạo
Joint ventures
Co-operative strategies where two or more organisations set up a separate jointly owned subsidiary to develop the cooperation
Liên doanh
Just-in-time
System that ensures that stock is delivered from suppliers only when it is required, with none being held in reserve.
Sản xuất tức thời/ Cung cấp đúng sản phẩm với đúng số lượng tại đúng nơi vào đúng thời điểm


Kaizen
The process of continuous improvement in production and every aspect of value added (Japanese).
Phương pháp cải tiến KAIZEN/là từ khá thông dụng tại Nhật Bản, có nghĩa là “cải tiến liên tục”. Đây là phương thức quản lý chất lượng phát sinh từ quản lý chất lượng toàn diện
Kanban
Control system on the factory floor to keep production moving
Thẻ kanban/Là công cụ để qui định dòng vật tư trong môi trường sản xuất, công cụ này hỗ trợ việc áp dụng hệ thống kéo.
Key factors for success
Those resources, skills and attributes of the organisations in an industry that is essential to deliver success in the market place.
Các nhân tố thành công cốt lõi
Knowledge
A fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information and expert insight.
Tri thức
Knowledge creation
The development and circulation of new knowledge within the organisation.
Tri thức sáng tạo
Knowledge management
The retention, exploitation and sharing of knowledge in an organisation that will deliver sustainable competitive advantage.
Quản trị tri thức
Laissez-faire policy
Describes the policies of a government relying on an approach of non-interference and free-market forces to manage the economy of a country.
Chính sách tự do kinh tế
Leadership
The art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically towards the achievement of the group’s mission and purpose.
Nghệ thuật lãnh đạo
Learning
The strategic process of developing strategy by crafting, experimentation and feedback.
Tổ chức học tập
Learning-based strategic route forward
Emphasises learning and crafting as aspects of the development of successful corporate strategy
Chiến lược xây dựng tổ chức học tập
Leasing
A form of debt where the organisation hires an asset for a period, possibly with the option of buying it at the end of the period
Nghiệp vụ cho thuê
Leveraging
The exploitation by an organisation of its existing resources to their fullest extent
Tận dụng/ Khai thác các nguồn lực sẵn có một cách tối đa
Life cycle
Plots the evolution of industry annual sales over time
Chu kỳ sống
Logical incrementalism
The process of developing a strategy by small, incremental and logical steps.
Quá trình phát triển chiến lược từng bước nhỏ, hợp lý
Logistics
The science of stockholding, delivery and customer service
Logistic
Long-term debt
A loan repaid over a period longer than a year
Nợ dài hạn
Loose–tight principle
The concept of the need for tight central control by headquarters, while allowing individuals or operating subsidiaries loose autonomy and initiative within defined managerial limits.
Nguyên tắc nới rộng – thắt
Low-cost leader in an industry
Has built and maintains plant, equipment, labour costs and working practices that deliver the lowest costs in that industry.
Dẫn đầu với chi phí thấp.
Macroeconomic conditions
Economic activity at the general level of the national or international economy.
Điều kiện kinh tế vĩ mô
Market equilibrium
The state that allows competitors a viable and stable market share accompanied by adequate profits
Cân bằng thị trường
Market mechanism
The means by which the state uses market pricing and quasi-market mechanisms to determine the supply and demand of goods that were previously state monopolies in public sector strategy.
Cơ chế thị trường
Market options matrix
Identifies the product and the market options available to the organisation, including the possibility of withdrawal and movement into unrelated markets
Ma trận lựa chọn thị trường mục tiêu
Market segmentation
The identification of specific groups (or segments) of customers who respond to competitive strategies differently from other groups.
Phân khúc thị trường
Market positioning
The choice of differential advantage possessed by an organisation that allows it to compete and survive in a market place.
Định vị thị trường
Mass marketing
One product is sold to all types of customer
Marketing đại trà
Matrix organisation structure
Instead of the product-based multidivisional structure, some organisations have chosen to operate with two overlapping structures
Cấu trúc tổ chức theo ma trận
Milestones
Interim indicators of progress during the implementation phase of strategy
Cột mốc trong từng giai đoạn thực hiện chiến lược
Minimum intervention
The principle that managers implementing strategy should only make changes where they are absolutely necessary
Sự can thiệp tối thiểu
Mission
Outlines the broad general directions that the organisation should and will follow and briefly summarises the reasoning and values that lie behind it.
Nhiệm vụ
Mission statement
Defines the business that the organisation is in or should be in against the values and expectations of the stakeholders
Sứ mệnh
Monopoly rents
Economic rent deriving from the markets in which the organisation operates
Lợi nhuận độc quyền
Multidivisional organisation structure
As the product range of the organisation becomes larger and more diverse, similar parts of the product range are grouped together into divisions, each having its own functional management team.
Cấu trúc tổ chức nhiều bộ phận
Multinational enterprise (MNE)
One of the global companies that operate in many countries around the world
Công ty đa quốc gia
Multinational strategy
When a company operates in many countries, though it may still have a home base.
Chiến lược đa quốc gia
Negative-sum game
Actions of each party undermine both themselves and their opponents.
Lý thuyết đàm phán với tổng âm
Negotiation-based strategic route forward
Has both human resource and game theory elements. Human resource aspects emphasise the importance of negotiating with colleagues in order to establish the optimal strategy
Chiến lược dựa trên lý thuyết đàm phán với tổng âm
Net cash flow
Approximately, the sum of pre-tax profits plus depreciation, less the periodic investment in working capital that is required to undertake the project
Dòng tiền ròng
Network-based strategy
Explores the links and degree of cooperation present in related organisations and industries.
Chiến lược dựa trên mạng lưới
Network co-operation
Refers to the value-adding relationships that organisations develop inside their own organisation and outside it with other organizations
Mạng lưới hợp tác
Network externalities
Refer to the development of an overall standard for a network that allows those belonging to the network to benefit increasingly as others join the network
Yếu tố ngoại lai mạng lưới/Lợi ích của 1sản phẩm/dịch vụ khi số ng sử dụng tăng lên 
New public management model
Consists of a model of public sector decision making where the professional civil service operates with more market competition and former state monopolies are divided and compete against each other for business from citizens
Mô hình quản lý công mới
Niche marketing
Concentration on a small market segment with the objective of achieving dominance of that segment
Thị trường ngách/ Tập trung vào một lĩnh vực thị trường cụ thể để đạt được phân khúc thị trường đó
Objectives or goals
Take the generalities of the mission and turn them into more specific commitments.
Mục tiêu
Oligopoly
A market dominated by a small number of firms
Thị trường độc quyền
Organisational capability
The skills, routines, management and leadership of its organisation.
Năng lực của tổ chức
Organisational culture
The set of beliefs, values and learned ways of managing in an individual organisation.
Văn hóa của tổ chức
Outsourcing
The decision by an organisation to buy in products or services from outside, rather than make them inside the organisation
Thuê ngoài/ Quyết định mua sản phẩm /dịch vụ từ nhà sản xuất khác thay vì tự sản xuất.
Paradigm
The recipe or model that links the elements of a theory together and shows, where possible, the nature of the relationships
Công thức/Mô hình
Parenting
The special relationships and strategies pursued at the headquarters of a diversified group of companies.
Chiến lược giữa “công ty mẹ” và “công ty con”. Những mối quan hệ đặc biệt và chiến lược được áp dụng theo trụ sở chính của một nhóm đa dạng các công ty.
Payback
The time that it takes to recover the initial capital investment, usually measured in years.
Hoàn vốn
Payoffs
The results of particular game-plays.
Lợi ích ròng/ Lợi ích có đc khi thực hiện một hành động cụ thể.
PESTEL analysis
Checklist of the political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, environmental and legal aspects of the environment.
Phân tích PESTLE là một công cụ hữu ích cho doanh nghiệp và được sử dụng kết hợp với phân tích SWOT để đánh giá tình hình của một doanh nghiệp cá nhân.
Plans or programmes
The specific actions that follow from the strategies. Often a step-by-step sequence and timetable
Kế hoạch/Chương trình
Politics
Concerned with the exercise of authority, leadership and management in organisations
Hoạt động chính trị
Portfolio matrix
Analyses the range of products possessed by an organisation (its portfolio) against two criteria: relative market share and market growth
Chiến lược Portfolio/ Các doanh nghiệp lớn (các tập đoàn thuộc loại đa dạng hoá hoạt động kinh doanh) thường sử dụng BCG để phân tích và định hướng chiến lược cho từng ngành nghề kinh doanh khác nhau (portfolio strategy) qua đó loại bỏ những nghành nghề không hiệu quả và tập trung đầu tư vào nghành nghề có lợi thế cạnh tranh hoặc thị trường có tiềm năng cao.
Power
This aspect of strategic leadership is concerned with the exercise of authority, leadership and management in organizations
Quyền lực
Predictability of the environment
The degree to which changes in the environment can be predicted.
Khả năng dự báo sự thay đổi của môi trường
Prescriptive change
The implementation actions that result from the selected strategy option
Quy tắc thay đổi
Prescriptive strategic management
A prescriptive strategy is one whose objective is defined in advance and whose main elements have been developed before the strategy commences.
Quy tắc quản trị chiến lược
Pressure points for influence
The groups or individuals that significantly influence the direction of the organisation, especially in the context of strategic change
Điểm nhấn ảnh hưởng: Các nhóm hoặc cá nhân ảnh hưởng đến tổ chức,đặc biệt có thể làm thay đổi chiến lược
Primary demand
Demand from customers for themselves or their families
Nhu cầu sơ cấp
Problem children
Products with low relative market shares in high-growth markets.
Các sản phẩm có thị phần tương đối thấp trong các thị trường có tốc độ tăng trưởng cao
Process of strategic management
How the actions of strategic management are linked together or interact with each other as strategy unfolds.
Quy trình quản lý chiến lược
Profit-maximising theories of strategy
Emphasise the importance of the market place and the generation of profit.
Chiến lược tối đa hóa lợi nhuận
Profitability
The ratio of profits from a strategy divided by the capital employed in that strategy. It is important to define clearly the elements in the equation,
Tỷ lệ lợi nhuận
Public interest
Concerns about the objectives of the institutions that make and implement public decisions in public sector strategy.
Thu hút công chúng
Public power
The resource possessed by nation states and consisting of the collective decision making that derives from the nation state.
Công quyền
Public sector administration model
Consists of a professional civil service bureaucracy that enacts government legislation and administers the activities of the state on behalf of the government, coupled with state monopolies that supply services to citizens.
Mô hình quản lý nhà nước
Public sector resource analysis
Needs to assess whether sufficient and appropriate resources are available to deliver the purpose and objectives set by the state.
Phân tích tài nguyên quốc gia
Public value
Refers to the benefits to the whole of the nation from owning and controlling certain products and services in public sector strategy.
Giá trị công cộng
Quota
A maximum number placed by a nation state on the goods that can be imported into the country in any one period.
Hạn ngạch
Reputation
The strategic standing of the organisation in the eyes of its customers and other stakeholders.
Danh tiếng
Resource allocation
The process of allocating the resources of the organisation selectively between competing strategies according to their merit
Sự phân phối nguồn vốn
Resource-based strategy
Stressses the importance of an organisation possessing some resources that deliver its competitive advantage over its rivals in the market place
Chiến lược dựa trên nguồn lực
Resource-based view
Stresses the importance of resources in delivering the competitive advantage of the organisation
Quan điểm dựa trên nguồn lực
Retained profits
The profits that are retained in an organisation rather than distributed as dividends to shareholders
Lợi nhuận được giữ lại
Return on capital employed
Defined as the ratio of profits to be earned divided by the capital invested in the new strategy.
Tỷ lệ thu nhập trên vốn sử dụng
Reward
The result of successful strategy, adding value to the organisation and the individual
Phần thưởng
Reward systems
The structured benefits paid to individuals and groups who have delivered strategies that add value to the organisation consistent with its agreed purpose
Hệ thống khen thưởng
Ricardian rents
Economic rent deriving from the resources of the organisation
Lý thuyết của Ricardo/
Tô kinh tế phát sinh từ nguồn lực của tổ chức
Risk
Strategy evaluation criterion associated with a strategy that does not expose the organisation to unnecessary hazards or to an unreasonable degree of danger.
Rủi ro
Scenario
Model of a possible future environment for the organisation, whose strategic implications can then be investigated.
Phương pháp kịch bản/Những câu chuyện/ kịch bản hợp lý về viễn cảnh tương lai thay thế
Schumpeterian rents
Economic rent deriving from new and innovatory products and services that allow the organisation to charge significantly above the costs of production.
Tô kinh tế phát sinh từ sản phẩm/dịch vụ mới
Seven S Framework
The seven elements are super ordinate goals: strategy, structure, systems, skills, style and staff.
7 yếu tố chi phối mục tiêu: chiến lược, cơ cấu, hệ thống, kỹ năng, phong cách và nhân lực.
Share issues
New shares in an organisation can be issued to current or new shareholders to raise finance for new strategy initiatives.
Sự phát hành cổ phiếu
Shareholder value added
The difference between the return on capital and the cost of capital multiplied by the investment made by the shareholders in the business
Tăng giá trị cho cổ đông
Short-term debt
A loan repaid in less than one year.
Nợ ngắn hạn
Small organisation structure
Consists of the owner/ proprietor and the immediate small team surrounding that person.
Cơ cấu tổ chức nhỏ
Socio-cultural theories of strategy
Focus on the social and cultural dimensions of the organisation in developing corporate strategy.
Chiến lược phát triển tập trung vào vấn đề văn hóa-xã hội.
Split
The variety of techniques that can be employed to develop and sustain the autonomy and diversity of large organisations
Chia nhỏ
Stakeholders
The individuals and groups who have an interest in the organisation and, therefore, may wish to influence aspects of its mission, objectives and strategies
Các bên hữu quan
Stars
Products with high relative market shares operating in high-growth markets.
Vùng ngôi sao (trong ma trận BCG) Sản phẩm có thị phần cao trong thị trường có tốc độ tăng trường cao
Strategic alliances
Co-operative strategies where organisations combine or share some of their resources without involving an exchange of shares or other forms of joint ownership
Liên minh chiến lược
Strategic business unit (SBU)
The level of a multi-business unit at which the strategy needs to be developed. The unit has the responsibility for determining the strategy of that unit.
Đơn vị kinh doanh chiến lược
Strategic change
The proactive management of change in organisations in order to achieve clearly defined strategic objectives or to allow the company to experiment in areas where it is not possible to define strategic objectives precisely
Chiến lược thích ứng
Strategic environment
Everything and everyone outside the organisation: competitors, government, etc.
Môi trường bên ngoài
Strategic fit
The matching process between strategy and organisational structure.
Quá trình kết hợp chiến lược và cơ cấu tổ chức
Strategic groups
Groups of firms within an industry that follow the same strategies or ones that have similar dimensions and which compete closely.
Nhóm chiến lược
Strategic leadership
This is the ability to shape the organisation’s decisions and deliver high value over time, not only personally but also by inspiring and managing others in the organisation.
Lãnh đạo chiến lược
Strategic management
This has at least three definitions. First, the identification of the purpose of the organisation and the plans and actions to achieve that purpose. Second, the identification of market opportunities, coupled with experimenting and developing competitive advantage over time. Third, the pattern of major objectives, purposes or goals and the essential policies or plans for achieving those goals.
Quản trị chiến lược
Strategic planning
A formal planning system for the development and implementation of the strategies related to the mission and objectives of the organization
Hoạch định chiến lược
Strategic space
The identification of gaps in an industry representing strategic marketing opportunities.
Chiến lược SPACE
Strategies
The principles that show how an organisation’s major objectives or goals are to be achieved over a defined time period.
Chiến lược
Strategy as history
The view that strategy must, at least in part, be seen as a result of the organisation’s present resources, its past history and its evolution over time
Xây dựng chiến lược dựa trên việc xem xét các kết quả đã được trước đó.
Style theory of leadership
Suggests that individuals can be identified who possess a general style of leadership that is appropriate to the organisation.
Phong cách lãnh đạo
Suitability
Strategy evaluation criterion associated with the strategy being appropriate for the internal and external context of the organization
Sự thích hợp
Survival-based theories of strategy
These regard the survival of the fittest in the market place as being the prime determinant of corporate strategy
Xem xét những điều thích ứng nhất trên thị trường hiện tại là yếu tố chính quyết định chiến lược công ty
Sustainable competitive advantage
An advantage over competitors that cannot be easily imitated.
Lợi thế cạnh tranh bền vững
SWOT analysis
An analysis of the strengths and weaknesses present internally in the organisation, coupled with the opportunities and threats that the organisation faces externally
Phân tích SWOT
Synergy
The combination of parts of a business such that the sum is worth more than the individual parts – often remembered as ‘2 + 2 = 5’.
Sự hợp lực
Tangible resources
The physical resources of the organisation such as plant and equipment
Tài nguyên hữu hình
Target pricing
Sets the price of goods and services primarily on the basis of the competitive position of the organisation, the profit margin required and, therefore, the target costs that need to be achieved.
Lợi nhuận mục tiêu
Targeted marketing
See Market segmentation
Marketing mục tiêu
Tariffs
Taxes on imported goods imposed by a nation stateve
Thuế quan
Taylorism
The division of work into measurable parts, such that new standards of work performance could be defined, coupled with a willingness by management and workers to achieve these.
Chủ nghĩa Taylor
Three ‘S’ Framework for Dynamic Strategy
has three main elements: 1. sensing the changes, 2. seizing the opportunities, 3. surveying the outcomes and responses
Chiến lược 3S: Có 3 yếu tố chính:cảm nhận sự thay đổi,nắm bắt cơ hội và khảo sát kết quả,phản ứng
Tiger economies
Countries of South-East Asia exhibiting exceptionally strong economic growth over the past 30 years, including Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Thailand and Korea
Những con Hổ Đông Nam Á (Nền kinh tế của các nước đông Nam Á có sự phát triển mạnh trong 30 năm qua)
Total quality management (TQM)
Emphasises the need for the whole company to manage quality at every level of the company.
Quản lý chất lượng toàn diện
Trade barriers
The barriers set up by governments to protect industries in their own countries

Rào cản thương mại
Trade block
Agreement between a group (or block) of countries designed to encourage trade between those countries and keep out other countries.
Khối thương mại
Trait theory of leadership
Argues that individuals with certain characteristics (traits) can be identified who will provide leadership in virtually any situation
Thuyết tính cách lãnh đạo
Transactions continuum
Based on the principle of the level of ownership by a diversified group, the transactions continuum represents the range of options that are available for ownership and control by the group: they begin at one end with an acquisition with 100 per cent ownership with divestment at the other end with zero per cent ownership.
Giao dịch liên tục
Transcend
Given the inevitable complexities of corporate strategy, some strategists argue that every organisation needs an approach to management that transcends these problems and copes with such difficulties.
Vượt qua (khó khăn)
Transfer price
The price for which one part of an organisation will sell its goods to another part in a multidivisional organisation
Giá chuyển nhượng
Transnational product company
This usually involves some global integration of manufacturing coupled with significant national responsiveness to national or regional variations in customer demand.
Công ty xuyên quốc gia
Uncertainty
may involve specific inputs but the outcomes are not fully defined in advance and perhaps not even clear after the event

Sự không chắc chắn
Uncertainty-based theories of strategy
These regard prediction of the environment as being of limited use because the outcomes of any strategy are essentially complex and unpredictable, implying that long-term planning has little value.
Chiến lược dựa trên sự bất ổn
Unrelated diversification
The different companies in a corporate group have little in common with regard to products, customers or technologies.
Đa dạng hóa không liên kết
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
A trade body set up to highlight the trading concerns of the developing nations of the world and promote their interests
Hội nghị Liên hiệp quốc về Thương mại và Phát triển.
Validity
Strategy evaluation criterion associated with the strategy and its related calculations and other assumptions being well-grounded and meaningful.
Giá trị pháp lý/Hiệu lực
Value chain
This identifies where the value is added in an organisation and links the process with the main functional parts of the organisation.
Chuỗi giá trị
Value system
The wider routes in an industry that add value to incoming supplies and outgoing distributors and customers.
Hệ thống giá trị
Vertical integration
This occurs when a company produces its own inputs (backward integration) or when a company owns the outlets through which it sells its products (forward integration).
Liên kết dọc
Vision
A challenging and imaginative picture of the future role and objectives of an organisation, significantly going beyond its current environment and competitive position
Tầm nhìn
Weighted average cost of capital
The combination of the costs of debt and equity capital in proportion to the capital structure of the organisation.
Chi phí sử dụng vốn bình quân
Zero-sum game
Has no payoff because the gains of one player are negated by the losses of another.
Lý thuyết đàm phán “Tổng bằng không” 



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